About The CYCLOPEAN Walls by Dr. Polat Kaya

Cyclopean Walls

Cyclopean Walls

The following is a citing from an article entitled “Mysteries of Ancient Greece” by Coen Vonk at here –> LINK

He writes: Cyclopean Walls and Pyramids

“Cyclopean walls are one of the most impressive remains from archaic civilizations. They are found in many places in Greece, but have been found all over the world — for example, in Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Peru, Japan, Australia, and Easter Island — which makes the masonry style universal. The renowned cyclopean walls of Tiryns and Mycenae are attributed to the Mycenaeans, also called the Achaeans or Pelasgians, and are generally assigned to the 14th and 13th centuries BCE. However, they may be much older because they are built directly on the rocky plateau and have been incorporated in rebuilding phases.”

“Some names of Greek deities are non-Greek in origin and might date back to the time of the Pelasgians. Therefore, by ignoring the influence and immigration of the Pelasgians, who are mentioned time and again by classical Greek authors, as well as other ancient races, today’s scholars have reduced their chances of finding out more about the beliefs of these ancient people.”

Polat Kaya:  The term CYCLOPEAN WALLS refers to ancient massive stone walls constructed by Pelasgians. I say ”by Pelasgians” because the name “Cyclopean” and the name “Pelasgian” are linguistically so intertwined with each other that we can say that they are one and the same. This we can see as follows:

When the term CYCLOPEAN is deciphered in the form of “PELACCYON”, we see that the name CYCLOPEAN is an altered and restructured form of the name “PELASKYAN” or “PELASGIAN”. Thus, these two terms clearly identify with each other. We see that, even in this case, the linguistic trick of altering words into “Indo-European” sounding words has been used. Otherwise, there would be almost zero probability of finding the word “Pelasgian” in the word “Cyclopean” or vice versa!

This also proves the fact that the linguistic trick of generating new words by altering and restructuring the words and phrases of the ancient Turanian language of Turkish has been used by some secretive language engineers for thousands of years.

***
In an earlier paper I analyzed and deciphered the name PELASGIAN in detail and recovered the following Turkish expressions embedded in the word PELASGIAN, [http://www.polatkaya.net/Pelasgians_1.html]:

a) “BALIGSIAN” (BALIKCILAR) meaning “the fishermen”, “the Sea People who fish in the open seas”.
b) “GALYANCI” (GALYONCU, KALYONCU) meaning “warship builders and owners, military navy ship owners; seawolf, galleon builder and owner”.
c) “YELKENCI Bei” meaning “sailboat builder and owner (lord)”.
d) “BİLGİCİAN” (BİLGİCİLER) meaning “men of knowledge”.
e) “BİLEN SAKA” meaning “Saka who knows”, “Saka who has the knowledge”.
f) “AL BAŞCIAN” (AL BAŞCILAR) meaning “Red heads”, “Red head peoples”.
g) “AL BENİZCİ” meaning “red faced ones”.
h) “ALBANCIYİZ” (ALBENCİYİZ) meaning “we are Alban (Al Ben) people”.
i) “BALKANCI EV” meaning “houses from Balkan”.
j) “BEN GALACI” (BEN KALECI) meaning “I am castle builder”.
k) “GANALCI” BEY meaning “I am channel builder lord”.
l) “BEN GAYACI” meaning “I am rock dealer, I am rock professional”.
m) “İL BAĞCILARI” meaning “the grape grower of the country”.
n) “BOL EKİNCİ” meaning “they were the farmers of grains”.
o) “İL SABANCI” (EKİNCİLER) meaning “the plough (plow) owners, the grain farmers, the country farmers”.
p) “BALCIANIZ” (BALCILARIZ) meaning “we are honey-producers”.
q) “BOL İNEKCİ” meaning “he who has plenty of cows”.
r) “BOL KOYUNCU” meaning “he who has plenty of sheep”.
s) “BEN ILGICI” (BEN YILKICI)” meaning “I am the owner of horse herds”.
t) “BEN AĞILCI” meaning “I own sheep-pens”.

All of these decipherments describe who the Pelasgians were and what kinds of activities they were doing. They were embedded in just one word that was used as a name for the people of PELASGIAN. In addition to these findings, I just showed that the term PELASGIAN is also embedded in the term CYCLOPEAN.
In the context that the term CYCLOPEAN refers to the ancient and magnificently built stone walls, we can also recover (decipher), from the word CYCLOPEAN, the following definitions in Turkish regarding the identity of these ancient walls.

First, when the term CYCLOPEAN is deciphered by rearranging it as “PN-KALE-COY”, I find that the name CYCLOPEAN is an altered and restructured form of the Turkish expression “BEN KALE KÖY” meaning “I am Castle Village” – which they were in the ancient past and still are! They were self contained villages that were surrounded with heavily fortified stone walls and even buildings within the castle were constructed with big stones.

Secondly, CYCLOPEAN is deciphered in the form of “AN-PAS-OKYLE”, I find that the name CYCLOPEAN is also an altered and restructured form of the Turkish expression “AN BAŞ OKULI” meaning “Sky Head School” which refers to a high school where most likely sky observations were made. Additionally, it is the Turkish expression “HAN BAŞ OKULI” meaning “Lord Head School” which refers to a school where the human “head” is trained in different subjects to achieve very difficult tasks.

Now, let us also use a more phonetic form of the name CYCLOPEAN such as the form “SAYKLOPEAN”. The term CYCLOPEAN is actually voiced as SAYKLOPEAN – contrary to its spelling.
When the term SAYKLOPEAN is deciphered in the form of “PN-SAKA-OYLE”, I find that the name SAYKLOPEAN is an altered and restructured form of the Turkish expression “BEN SAKA ÖYLÜ” meaning “I am from Saka house” (i.e., I am from Saka people, I am Scythian)” – which they were!
Additionally, when the name SAYKLOPEAN is deciphered by rearranging it as “PN-KALA-OYE-S”, I find that the name SAYKLOPEAN is also an altered, restructured and Aryan’ized form of the Turkish expression “BeN KALA ÖYÜ (EVİ)” meaning “I am castle house” – which again they were!
Furthermore, when the name SAYKLOPEAN is deciphered as “PS-OL-KAYAEN”, I find that the name SAYKLOPEAN has embedded in it the Turkish expression “BiZ ULU KAYAAN” (BİZ ULU KAYALAR) meaning “we are great rocks” which they are! In this case, suffix –EN (-AN) is the ancient Turkish plurality suffix.
Turkish word BEN means “I; I am”, SAKA means “water man; Saka Turk”, KÖY means “village”, ÖY means “house, home”, ÖYLÜ means “with house, from house”, KALE (KALA, GALA) means “castle”, KAYA means “rock”, ULU means “great”, BiZ means “we”.
***
These decipherments explain what the term CYCLOPEAN meant in the context of “cyclopean walls”, and for what purpose, and by whom they were built! They definitely belonged to the ancient Turanian civilization!
The name CYCLOPEAN appears to have been made up from one of several possible expressions of pure Turkish whose meanings line up exactly with the purpose and the essence of the Cyclopean walls – despite the fact that the true meaning and the Turkishness of the word CYCLOPEAN have been disguised very cleverly! By this act, this ancient Turanian civilization has been intentionally obliterated and swept into the obscurity of ancient ruins – while its grandeur and glory is wrongly assigned to Greeks. In other words, the identity of the Pelasgians is being passed to us as an “unsolved mystery” when in reality there is no mystery that they were Turanians! The Cyclopean walls are found all over the world. This shows how extensively the ancient Turanian SAKA Turks and their civilization had spread all over the world.

***

When people see the term CYCLOPEAN, they wrongly assume that Cyclopean walls were either built by the ancient Greeks or that they belonged to the ancient Greek civilization. But in reality they were built by ancient Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples who populated Asia, Europe, Africa and even North and South America far earlier than the so-called Aryan groups.

Greek mythology gives the impression that the Cyclopean walls were built by one-eyed giants called CYCLOPS, (i.e., “TEPEGÖZ” in Turkish mythology), who were able to lift very heavy stones. This wrong presentation conveniently covers up the fact that these immense and magnificent walls were built by people who had the knowledge and skills to build them. They were not “one-eyed giants” as we are led to believe. From the name PELASGIAN, and their language (see my paper about the decipherment of the Pelasgian writing on the Lemnos Island Stelae at URL: http://members.storm.ca/~cm-tntr/lemstelea.html) we know that they were the knowledgable and learned SAKA Turks who built them. It was their advanced scientific knowledge and skill acquired in schools that made the Saka Turks “giants” in every field that they touched. For instance, building ocean-going vessels to go on ocean trips was not an easy task. Building water channels underground or above ground was not an easy task! Building magnificent castles of all kinds and shapes on top of cliffs and hills was not an easy task! Building pyramids was not an easy task, so much so, that modern science is still struggling to understand how they were made. All this on top of the Cyclopean walls. These extremely difficult and magnificent achievements could only be accomplished through the knowledge and skill of the ancient Pelasgians. For them, the human “HEAD”, that is, (“TEPE” (BAŞ) in Turkish), was the most important godly creation of Sky-God and his eye the Sun-God. With these I conclude this study the Cyclopean walls.

Examples of magnificent Cyclopean walls can be viewed at the link below.

Cyclopean walls images

With my best wishes to all,

Polat Kaya

15/05/2012

Trabzon, The Beautiful City of North East Turkiye.

Tea at the Cevahir Cafe at the Cevahir Shopping Centre

Tea at the Cevahir Cafe at the Cevahir Shopping Centre

I try to visit my home town Trabzonas often as possible. In my last visit (end of May, beginning of June) it was cross between spring to summer  time. The most beautiful time for countryside, sea side and mountains.

At this time of the year, everything in nature becomes alive again, many shades of green meets with crisp  shades of blue in the Black Sea. Flowers of all kinds are all over, smell of sea, various kinds of trees, flowers and grass has magical effects on us.  It is refreshing and soul healing to be with the nature at this time.

Melting snow on the mountains in May.

Melting snow on the mountains in May.

Trabzon changed beyond recognition within last decade. First it was a road which crossed the city, then followed by seaside main road. It has three big modern shopping centres, supermarkets and more or less everything that big cities have.

Trabzon has one of the biggest universities, Karadeniz Teknik Universitesi (Black Sea Technical University)in Turkey . I was told by my friend Dean of Education Faculty that only they had more then 10000 students in their campus which is separate from main university.

Last year Trabzon hosted European Youth Olympics Festival very successfully. This event itself gained the city many sports halls and venues of various types. [Read more…]

Tulip Mania by Ayhan Ozer

Tulips

Tulips

In these days, there is a musical play staged in Philadelphia called “Tulipomania”. It is commissioned by the Arden Theater Company. The show is about a 17th century ill-fated  tulip trader willing to give up everything for a single tulip bulb during the Dutch Tulip Craze. This Tulip Craze is referred to as the first recorded economic bubble in history. Its driving forces were ambition, greed and envy, all self-destructive.

Tulips are among the most popular of all garden flowers, and were the center pieces of the social, historical and economical events in two countries, namely Turkey and Netherlands. The people in both countries had emotional attachments to the tulip which brought ominous consequences, economically, socially or historically. Holland was so passionately involved in tulip mania that it ruined its economy. The Ottoman Empire too was seized in a frenzy of tulip so much so that a period of its history (1718-1730) is known as the “Tulip Period”. In both countries the tulip was the center-piece of daily life.

There is a speculation that the name “tulip” comes from the Turkish “turban” as the plant’s blossoms resemble turban. [Read more…]

The Roots of Christianity in Turkiye, by Ayhan Ozer

In antiquity, today’s Turkish land was the scene for many momentous events in the history of Christianity. The social, cultural and religious impacts of those incidents have shaped our world and left indelible marks that enriched the land it self as well.

The Christianity was made a state religion first time ever in today’sIstanbul,Turkey.

The Emperor “Constantine the Great” founded theEastern Roman Empire, and on 330 A.D. he accepted Christianity, and accorded a status to it by declaring the Christianity the official religion of the realm. He made the city ofGreek Byzantium(today’sIstanbul) its capital, and renamed it Constantinople.

In Jerusalem, a sect out of nowhere, peaceful and humble posed a quiet challenge to the all-powerful Roman emperors. The spiritual leader of this mission was Jesus Christ. During the early stage of this movement his followers were persecuted. Following his death, during the period between 29AD and 40AD the Roman persecutions of his disciples increased; therefore, they convened secretly in places chosen by the Apostles. Between 37 A.D. and 42 A.D. the Roman persecutions intensified, and the Apostles were forced to leave Jerusalemfor more secure places. The Apostles Peter and his followers chose Antioch, today’s Antakya, a Turkish town on the Eastern Mediterraneanwhich was once one of the great emporiums of the Hellenistic and Roman world. Those faithful Christians convened in a makeshift locale, and feeling secure, they called themselves first time ever “Christians”, meaning those who adopted the faith of Christ. Their meeting place in Antiochis accepted as the first Christian church of the world. There were earlier congregation places inJerusalem, but the congregants had not identified themselves as “Christians.” Therefore; theAntiochChurch holds the title of the “First Christian Church”. Later,Antioch gained prominence in Christianity, and was the third important Christian city afterJerusalem and Rome.

The Roman persecutions of the early Christians lasted for about three centuries, during which time the beleaguered Christians found a safe haven in today’s Turkish heartland, which is called with its antique name of “Cappadocia”. Today, in that region there are two Turkish towns called “Urgup” and “Goreme”. A New York Times article describes those cities as “lunar landscapes”, and further it says, “a more extraterrestrial specter than Cappadocia’s landscape can hardly be imagined – endless fields of bizarre castles, cones, spires and towers, crags dotted with mysterious apertures and phalanxes of gigantic mushrooms wearing caps that mock gravity.” Tens of thousands years of volcanic eruptions created a tufa, a soft and malleable stone, consisting of lava, ash and mud. Beneath this fantastic landscape the early Christians dug far-flung subterranean cities 10 stories (300 feet) deep that include churches, storage areas, and ingenious airshafts and wells that made possible long subterranean stays. Above ground they carved churches, monasteries and hermits’ hideaways into the rock and painted on their walls icons and geometric designs. Today, a total of six ancient churches exist in that area.

Virgin Mary is revered in Islam too as the mother of Jesus Christ.(Meryem Ana in Turkish, meaning Mother Mary) She spent her last years in Ephesus, a town in the western Turkey. The successive Roman emperors saw the Christians as a curse and a growing threat to their authorities. Shortly after the Ascension of Jesus Christ,Jerusalem became even more dangerous a place. Saint Peter andSaint John were imprisoned, and in 37 A.D. Saint Stephen was stoned to death. In 42 A.D. Saint James the Elder,Saint John’s brother, was beheaded. Under such circumstances it was unthinkable thatSaint John, who had been entrusted with the care of Mary by Christ himself, would have exposed her to such a peril. According to Tradition Mary and Saint John left Jerusalem for Asia Minor (present day Turkey) in the year 37 A.D., or the latest, in 42 A.D. Eusebius of Caesarea (260-339A.D.) the renowned theologian, church historian and the biographer of the Emperor Constantine wrote that the Asia Minor at that time was turned to a field of apostolic activities by the Jesus’ disciples escaping from Jerusalem. Mary lived for nine years at the western Anatolian town ofEphesus in a stone house originally built bySaint John on the top of a hill at an elevation of 1,500 ft. Today, a path shaded by olive trees leads to a statue of her located next to her house that welcomes the visitors gracefully. She may have died there at about the age of 64. Her grave is a mile away from her house.

In Ephesus, as early as the 3rd century a large Christian church (Marian Basilica) existed. It was dedicated to Saint Mary, where the Ecumenical Council of 431 A.D. was convened. The church law, then prevalent, did not allow building churches to venerate saints, except in places where they had lived or died. This is a confirmation that Mary had lived there. Also, the tomb of Saint John is there too; it lies under the marble sanctuary within the Basilica of Saint John. Ever since the 8th century the Syrian Jacobite Church upheld the Ephesian Tradition with regard to Mary’s last years. Later, they reaffirmed this belief in 12th and 13th centuries, and again in 17th and the 18th centuries. The Pope “learned” Benedict XIV (1740-1758) also confirmed the Ephesian Tradition.

In the same area, about 7 miles East of Ephesus there is a town called “Kirkince”. An Orthodox colony of 4000 Greeks have lived in that area. They are the last remaining ascendants of the Ephesian Christians. Their forefathers took refuge in Kirkince in the 11th century because of the invasion of the Seljuk Turks. Every year, on August 15th they convene in a small chapel on Bulbul Dag (Mount of Nightingale) to celebrate the Assumption Day. Some historians tie those maverick Christians to the habitation of Virgin Mary in that area. They claim those diehard Christians were the loyal followers of Virgin Mary.

Today, the Virgin Mary’s house is a pilgrimage site. It started in 1896. In 1982, there were about 500,000 visitors from all over the world. Pope Leo XIII, Pope Saint Pious X, John XXIII, Paul IV (July 26, 1967), and John Paul II (November 30, 1979) made pilgrimage to the site, and proclaimed it as a pilgrimage ground. On the way to Mary’s house is the Grotto of the Seven Sleepers. Here, carved out of the mountain side, are the remains of three churches, the tombs of the seven early Christian martyrs, and the tomb of Mary Magdalena. 

Apostle Saint Paul was born in Tarsus, a town in the Southern Turkey which is notable for another earlier occasion; it was the meeting place of Anthony and Cleopatra in 37 B.C. Saint Paul was a Jew, and named Saul after the first king of Israel. Saint Paul made three missionary voyages. All these trips originated from today’sTurkey.  His first voyage started in A.D. 47 fromAntioch, and ended a year later again inAntioch. His second voyage started in 49 AD also fromAntioch, he moved to the North and crossed toEurope from the Dardanelle (Turkish Straits). He and his party went toMacedonia, there Luke, the author of the fourth Gospel, joinedSaint Paul’s party. Then, they came toAthens, and toCorinth. They crossed the Aegean Sea back to Asia Minor, and arrived toEphesus. Later,Saint John left for the Holy Land, and then returned toAntioch.

WhenSaint Paulstarted his third missionary voyage fromAntiochhe had planned to go to the city ofEphesus, which he did, and stayed there about two-and-half years. He and his companions then traveled to Northern Greece andMacedonia. Then they traveled to the Aegean islands, and finally toHoly Land. InJerusalem, he was arrested with trumped up charges. He wanted to appeal to the Emperor, and was taken toRome. He was freed. He returned toEphesus. In AD 67, during the reign of the Emperor Nero, he was arrested second time, this time he was found guilty, and beheaded.Saint Paulwas a tireless preacher, a true believer and a spirited evangelist. He became a martyr.

Another famous person of Christianity with roots in Turkey is Saint Nicholas, or Santa Claus; who was born and lived in the 4th century in a town called “Patara” (today, Gelemis) in Southern Turkey. Patara was an important port city in the ancient times. His tomb and his church still stand intact in a neighboring small town calledMyra (Demre, in Turkish) also located inSouthern Turkey. Previously,Myra was a pagan city, but in the Saint Nicholas’s time it became the seat of his Bishopric.Saint Paul visitedMyra during his journey toRome.

Nicholas was the son of wealthy parents who died young. With the money he inherited he made a practice of giving secretly to the poor. Nicholas became Christian, and traveled toJerusalemfor pilgrimage. On his return he went toMyra; the Christian had built a church on the site of an ancient pagan temple. He became the Bishop of Myra and modestly filled the Episcopal See of Myra. His generosity and the tales of his benevolence spread beyond the range of his small village, and even drew the wrath of the Byzantine Emperor Diocletian who put him in jail and had him tortured.

To many, Saint Nicholas is more than a saint; he is the spirit of Christmas.

Christianity is a dynamic religion, open to new ideas, and is progressive. In 395 A.D. theRoman Empirewas divided into two for political reasons. The Western Roman Empire centered inRome, and the Eastern Roman Empire centered in Byzantine (today’sIstanbul,Turkey). Being geographically far from each other the theology, interpretation, and even the liturgy in these two Christian centers gradually grew apart. Despite some rivalry betweenRomeand theConstantinoplethey worked in a relative harmony until 11th century. The Patriarch of the Orthodox Church inIstanbul felt that the Pope of the WesternChurchinRomeconstantly introduced innovations into the liturgy which he believed as a direct violation of the ecclesiastical laws laid down by the Apostles and the successive synods. He found those accretions schismatic. Historically, the Eastern Orthodox Church has assumed seniority over the Latin Church; it acted as if it was the custodian, if not the direct heir to the Christianity. Its posture was that the Christianity was home-grown in the Orthodox soil; whereas it was “transplanted” in the Latin soil; and the “bonding” in that climate may not have been right as 500 years later the Protestantism divided the Western Christianity into warring camps. Thus, the Orthodox Church carved itself an image of being “original” while it regarded the Latin Church in Romeas a “late comer” without any “organic” ties to the root of the Christianity. In that environment, the question of Trinity turned from a mild disagreement to a thorny issue that occupied the agenda of both Churches. Each interpreted the Trinity from its own rigid perspective. Inevitably, it escalated to a burning issue which caused the relations between these two main branches of the Christianity broke off in a schism. The contention had a political dimension, but it had also theological and doctrinaire layers. Final showdown came about on July 16, 1054 at the Church of Saint Sophia (Holly Wisdom) inIstanbul. Cardinal Humbert, an envoy of the Pope, was visitingConstantinople, following some provocative discussions he placed on the communion table an aphorism excommunicating the Eastern Patriarch and the bishops of the Eastern Church collectively, and he did this in their home turf! It was an audacity unpardonable. Ever since this incident these two main branches of Christianity do not talk to each other. The late Pope John Paul II made an attempt to re-establish the “union” between the Latin and theOrthodoxChurches; but the relations have not warmed up yet.

Other early Christianity relics that exist in today’s Turkeyare the “Seven Churches of Revelation”. The Book of Revelation was written about 95 A.D. by Apostle John. It is the only prophetic-based book in the New Testament. The seven churches of Revelation were existed in the first century A.D. They are located atEphesus,Smyrna (today’sIzmir),Pergamum (today’sBergama), Thyatira (today’s Akhisar),Sardis,Philadelphia (today’s Alasehir), andLaodicea – all in today’sTurkey.

All the above Christian relics located in today’s Turkey have generated a lively “Faith Tourism”, and each year thousands of pilgrims flock to Turkey to visit those sites, and to feel the holy presence of their faith.  [Read more…]

A deep Rooted Belief: The Evil Eye (Nazar) by Ayhan Ozer

Evil Eye is a strong belief in many cultures; in the Middle East, North Africa, India, and even in some Slavic countries people are conscious of this phenomenon. This belief attributes a supernatural potency to the glance of certain people; they presume an occult power with an intense magnetism in their eyes does have the ability to cause misfortune, such as injury, freak accidents, disease or even death to those on whom it falls. The folk tales in some countries relate bizarre episodes about it. Children and animals are said to be particularly susceptible to evil eye.

How did this belief come about? In ancient societies it was widely believed that a cosmic belt that carried supernatural forces surrounded the Earth, and some human beings were unknowingly in tune with that force which reflected in their eyes, supposedly causing unintentional harm to other people. [Read more…]

KANDIL in Islam by Ayhan Ozer

In Islam, there is a custom called Kandil ( Feast in English). These are periodic religious observances commemorating an event, or honoring a Deity, a person or a thing. There are four such events in Islam that are considered Holly. They are observed regularly with solemnity. Those are Mevlud, the celebration of the Birth of Muhammed, Regaib that glorifies His Conception, Mirac that praises His Ascension to Heaven, and Berat that observes His investiture with Prophet-hood. In those occasions the devout are reminded of their pious obligations towards Providence as well as their social obligations to fellow human beings. The believers are enjoined to reflect and pray, to concentrate on their inner world, and to become more mindful of their relationship with God. To add a measure of festivity to those observations the bakeries make special bagel-type rolls, and the mosques are lighted up. The devout are encouraged to read and chant Qur’an. Families, friends and relatives pay visit to each other. [Read more…]

Words under the lens: About the word “KAVAL” meaning “horse” and its variations By Polat Kaya

Dr. Polat Kaya
Dr. Polat Kaya

A friend asked the meaning of the word KAVAL in Turkish.  To this my first response was that it meant “flute” in Turkish. But when she explained that it was the Indo-European word KAVAL meaning “horse” and what was my view about it, then, the story was changed completely and my view of this word and some other related words makes up the paper below.

First, we must note that although words may look alike in format does not necessarily mean that they are related to each other or one is derived from the other or both are coming from the same “root” word. The important linguistic element that determines the identity of a word is the meaning that has been assigned to it. Any comparison of two two words that look alike must be examined together with their meanings in order to make any  judgment abouth their linguistic relations.

***

There seems to be a number of forms of this so called “Indo-European” (IE) word “KAVAL” meaning “horse” such as:

Latin “caballus“, Italian “cavallo” and sometimes  “caval“,  French “cheval“, etc. The speakers of such languages naturally think that this word is one of the original words of their languages which they speak from childhood onwards.  Of course, this assumption is a natural for them, as they do not study to learn how the words of their languages were made up.  Most people do not stop to think about such matters. However one expects that  at least some of the linguists would study such matters.  I have done such study intensively and I will now explain the nature of the make up of this word “kaval, cavallo, caballlus, cheval“.
[Read more…]

Interfaith Dialogue: A Spiritual Tool By: Ayhan Ozer

This millennium was inaugurated with positive steps in the area of religious  rapprochement among Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. The undisputed architect of this new “Enlightenment” was the late Pope John Paul II. With humility and genuine interest in other faiths he tore down the walls that separated the belief systems, and began building bridges. He opened the flood gates of understanding among religions. This liberating attitude found its expression in the burgeoning interfaith groups. Historically, an interest in other faiths had always been casual and sporadic, if not alienated; but lately this interest has gained a fresh momentum and become more manifest and engaging.

Throughout history, humankind has experienced untold religious wars, although most of the wars were between religions, but intra-religion wars too were common. The Crusades, the vicious Spanish Inquisition and the evil Holocaust are religiously motivated blots on the record of humankind. With a new and fresh outlook we have begun drawing positive lessons from these events and have gained a fresh perspective. More importantly, the human endeavor, rather than religious identity came to the fore. We have become more conscious of our selfishness and our closed mindedness. We have realized that in order to restore sanity to the human race the ignorance, bigotry and self-righteousness must be eradicated. It is a giant step and a long, arduous journey; yet it is the only way there is.  [Read more…]

Photography Museum Opens in Kadırga District of Fatih, Istanbul

Kadırga District of Fatih, Istanbul

Kadırga District of Fatih, Istanbul

“Turkey’s first photography museum” was opened in İstanbul on 16 November 2011,  with an exhibition dedicated to the “Masters of photography from the Republican era“, which followed the revolution of Kemal Ataturk in the 1920s.

The museum is the masterpiece of famous Turkish photographer Gültekin Cizgen and run by the Friends of Photography Association headed by his brother Seyhsüvar Çizgen. Gültekin Çizgen was quoted in an article that “you can see everything that is linked to photography” in the museum.

The Museum, not too far from the small Ayasofya Mosque in Fatih, also organises events, conferences and publications and in fact, the place was full of stuents while I was taking notes on the exhibition spread in five galleries. To mark the opening of the museum, two temporary exhibitions were set up alongside the permanent collection. “Photography today – 2011” displays the work of 200 artists from all generations of Turks and sections of society, including the most famous photographer in Turkey, Ara Güler, who has held many exhibitons of his own both in Turkey and abroad. This year Ara Güler is celebrating his 85th birthday. [Read more…]

Noah’s Pudding or Ashure by Ayhan Ozer

Ashure is an authentic and unique dessert widely known in the Middle East, and made by the Christians, Jews and the Muslims alike. It is also called “Noah’s Pudding” a reference to the legend of Noah’s Ark. Traditionally; it is made on the 10th of the Islamic month of Muharrem. In Arabic “Ashar” means Tithe, a tenth part of something; so it may have acquired its name from this connection.

Noah’s miraculous journey on a boat is a shared belief by the three monotheistic religions. Legend has it that thousands of years ago societies showed sign of corruption.  Persistent problems of violence, injustice, oppression, crime, immorality vexed and exasperated people. Prophet Noah, a wise man, with an unwavering belief to one God, urged his people to amend their evil and wicked ways. Yet, people refused to listen to his injunctions, even made fun of him, and scoffed at him. [Read more…]