The Etruscan Tuscania Dice Revisited By Polat Kaya

Etruscan numerals written on Tuscania Dice   From

Etruscan numerals written on Tuscania Dice From

The Etruscan numerals shown on the so-called “Tuscania Dice” have been read as shown in the table below:

The numeral 1 which other readers have read as “thu”, I read as “pir” since the Etruscan name appears more like a PR rather than a ThU. Additionally, we have a good reference in terms of the Latin term PRIMUS for the ordinal numeral name for “one”.

The Latin ordinal numeral name is given as PRIMUS,  When this word is rearranged as PRIMSU, we find that it is an altered and restructured form of the Turkish word BİRİNCİ meaning the “first”. The root word for these Latin and Turkish words is the Turkish numeral name BİR (PİR) meaning “one” – contrary to the distraction caused by the artificial restructuring of the Turkish word. Turkish BİR (PİR) has been intentionally altered into “Aryan” PRI.

            2          3        4                    5            6

1968 Olzscha                thu        zal        ci        huth            makh        sa
1969 Pfiffig                  thu        zal        ci        sa                makh        huth
1983 Bonfante              thu        zal        ci        sa                makh        huth
1984 Pallottino            thu        zal        ci        huth (sa?)    makh        sa (huth?)
1989 Rix                      thu        zal        ci        huth             makh         sa
1990 Pittau                  thu        zal        ci        huth             makh         sa
1991 Morandi              thu        zal        ci        huth             makh         sa

List is from


My reading of the Etruscan numeral names written on the Tuscania Dice differs radically from the ones shown in above list.  They are as follows:

Numeral:                         1            2         3            4            5            6
Etruscan                     pr (pir)     ci (ki)   zal        maok      isha       huti (hlti)

Turkish                      bir (pir)      iki        üç        dört        beş        altı

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An Etruscan Mirror Depicting “HERAKLEI” or “KEL OĞLAN” By Polat Kaya

Below is an Etruscan Mirror:  From a book by Giuseppe Foscarini, “La Lingua degli Etruschi”, Item 11, p. 31.

An Etruscan Mirror:  From a book by Giuseppe Foscarini, “La Lingua degli Etruschi”, Item 11, p. 31.

An Etruscan Mirror: From a book by Giuseppe Foscarini, “La Lingua degli Etruschi”, Item 11, p. 31.

This mirror has two Etruscan inscriptions as names of a man and a woman as shown above. I first trancribe and describe the man’s name by reading the name from right-to- left as:

a)  “OKEL-oQUN” which identifies the man with the Turkish name “OKIL-oQUyaN” meaning “he who studies in school”.  In the Etruscan text, the first letter is shown as an “arrow” which has the name “OK” in Turkish. Therefore, I trancribed it as “OK”.

b)    Additionally, it could be transcribed as “aKEL-oQUN” which identifies the man with the Turkish “AKIL-oQUyaN” meaning “he who studies logic and knowledge in school”.

From the picture, we see that he is a “BALD” man with a lion’s fur on his sholder. This identifies him as the Etruscan “HERAKLI”, that is, Turkish “ER AKLI” as I discussed in describing the previous Etruscan mirror. Thus, the man in the picture is a mythological personification of the knowledge that people learn by attending schools or through their self enlightened thoughts.

The Etruscan “HERAKLI”, Latin “HERCULES” and Greek “HERAKLEUS” are all from Turkish words “ER AKLI” and “US”. <>
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ETRUSCAN Writing Description (No. 1) By POLAT KAYA

Below is an Etruscan Mirror:  From a book by Giuseppe Foscarini, “La Lingua degli Etruschi”, Item 12, p. 32-33.

This mirror has two Etruscan inscriptions as names of a woman and a boy as shown above. I first trancribe and describe the boy’s name:

a)   HERAKELI which identifies first with the name HERAKLEUS which I have already explained that this supposedly Greek name is actually a madeup name using the Turkish expression “ER AKLI US” meaning “man’s mind wisdom”.  This supposedly “Greek” name personifies “the mind, knowledge and wisdom” of man as a mythological personality, but it does it using Turkish as source.

But when we read the Etruscan writing HERAKELI in the form “HER-AKELI”, we find that it is nothing but the Turkish expression “ER AKILI” meaning “man’s mind, man’s wisdom, man’s knowledge”. Thus, the Etruscan word HERAKELI is 100 % Turkish and it prooves that the Etruscan language was TURKISH! Clearly, when these Turkish words are concatinated with each other and with a letter H added to its front, then its Turkishness cannot be recognized readily.
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The Sardinian Capital City NORA and Sardinian Kinship With the Phoenicians (GÜNHANS) (Part- 2) By POLAT KAYA

In Part-1 of this study, we noted that Sardinia was called Ichnusa (the Latinised form of Greek Hyknousa), Sandalion, Sardinia and Sardo by the ancient Greeks and the Romans.  And the term SARDONIC was the adjective of Sardinia.  We examined many Sardinia related names and words. Among them, we looked at four different Sardinia related words: Sardonic, Sandalion, Hyknousa and Ichnusa. By deciphering the word “Sardonic” we found, inherent in the name, the following definitions in Turkish that were applicable to the Sardinians as their attributes:

“Turanians”; “Tanri believers”; “Sky-Turks; Lord Turks”; “Turks from Turkiye”, “people from Anatolia”; “Tur/Turk man”;  “watermen”; “Saka men (Saka Turks)”, “Pelasgians; “fishermen”; “men of ocean”; “soldiers of the Sun”; “soldier people”; “followers of the sun”, “Sun worshipping people”;”the readers of written works”; “the top readers of written works”; “the readers of secrets”; “the readers of the winds”; “the readers of the God”; “water studying men”; “men of ocean waters”; “sheep breeder men”; “cattle breeder men”; “yellow wood dealers”; “knowledge people, light people”; “wearing yellow pants”, “yellow pants people” .

Also by deciphering the name SANDALION, we found the following definitions in Turkish that were relevant to the Sardanians: “house of boats”; “boat owners”; “boat builders”; “from Anatolia”, that is, “were originally Anatolians”.

And by deciphering the Greek name HYKNOUSA, we have the following attributes for Sardinians.  The Sardinians were:
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About The Etruscan Pyramid At Bomarzo, ITALY and Words Related to The Concepts of Pyramid and ALTAR By Polat Kaya

In my Facebook, a valued friend, Ms. Tina Frigerio, shared with me her photos of an Etruscan pyramid that, at its top, seems to have been used as an altar for Etruscan religious gatherings – during its usable days. With a note to me, she suggested: “I think that these examples of “altars” found in central Italy might be of interest regarding their Turanian origins”.  I am grateful to her for sharing this information with me and also for her suggestion.

To have a better understanding about this Etruscan pyramid (as well as other pyramids elsewhere) and the “altar” concepts, I wanted to get an understanding from the definitions of these words. More importantly, the names attributed to concepts also carry highly refined definitions in Turkish that are not visible on the surface.  So, I will decipher the relevant words to get a better understanding of them.

One of Ms. Tina Frigero’s photos of the Etruscan pyramid is shown below, Figure 1.

Figure 1. Etruscan Pyramid-Altar at Bomarzo, Italia, from Tina Frigerio's Facebook photo album

Figure 1. Etruscan Pyramid-Altar at Bomarzo, Italia, from Tina Frigerio's Facebook photo album

Figure 3.  Etruscan Pyramid-Altar at Bomarzo, Italia, from Tina Frigerio’s Facebook photo album showing the Altar and the channels cut possibly for flow of “blood” from sacrificial animals.

Figure 2.  Etruscan Pyramid-Altar at Bomarzo, Italia, from Tina Frigerio's Facebook photo album

Figure 2. Etruscan Pyramid-Altar at Bomarzo, Italia, from Tina Frigerio's Facebook photo album

Pyramids are essentially stylized man made “hills” (i.e., “TEPE”, a small mountain), while an altar is regarded as a flat surface that can be used as an area where religious ritual is performed.  From these pictures above and the others in Tina’s photo album, it is clear that this Etruscan pyramid is not a normal one built with stones in an open area, but rather one that has been carved out from a big rock. It has two “altar” areas at the top, one on either side. The one we see in Figure 2 and 3 have two areas cut into the rock. The one at the left has a sitting position (which is called “SEKI” in Turkish) where probably some important attendees would be sitting and called upon for some function in the ritual, while the one at the right, seems to be a larger area possibly for animals to be sacrificed for the gods.  There is one channel which branches off into two, cut into the rock-bed probably to let the blood from the slaughtered animal flow downwards and then to wash the altar area. [Read more…]


I have been interested in the ancient Turanian identity of Sardinians ever since I saw some pictures of Turkish BALBAL-like stone statues, Menhirs and Dolmens in Sardinia. To me they were the remnants of the civilization of the ancient Turanian peoples.  Recently, I have seen some very interesting and exciting photos of ancient artifacts from Sardinia in the internet and facebook. Some very talented Italian friends have presented their excellent photos of artifacts of ancient Sardinia.  In this study, I wish to bring clarity to some of the ancient names that have been used in identifying the Sardinians. Sardinians were close kins of Etruscans, Corsicans (Saka people), Pelasgians, Phoenicians and Cartaginians and also Anatolians and other Turanians.

The island of Sardinia, with many ancient structures in the forms of so-called NURAGHE, MENHIR, DOLMEN, Well-Temples and even a pyramid or ziggurat like structure, are the center of attractions regarding its “oriental” past.  But all of these have remained a riddle with respect to who built them and what their purpose was.

The following background information from several internet reference sources regarding ancient Sardinia and Sardinians are relevant to this study.  I believe important information in Turkish regarding these ancient Sardinians are hidden in the names that were used in identifying these ancient peoples and their civilization. They become obvious and meaningful only after the names are deciphered, in different manners, into Turkish. [Read more…]

About the Name “ETRUSCAN” And Some Other “ETRUSCAN” Related Words By Polat Kaya

The wolf, feeding the twins Romulus and Remus

The wolf, feeding the twins Romulus and Remus


Regarding the ethnic identity of ancient Etruscans, confusing writings have been produced since the times of ancient Romans and Greeks. To me the ancient confusion was intentional because ancient Greeks, Romans and the Semitic people jointly wanted to destroy the ancient Turanian civilization and obliterate the Turanian identity of any Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples whom they could influence. The Turanian civilization was the first worldwide civilization and when it was at its peak in the world, there was no Greek or Roman or Semitic religions or civilizations. Present day DNA studies have tied the origin of Etruscans  to Anatolia. [Achilli A, Olivieri A, Pala M, et al. (April 2007). “Mitochondrial DNA variation of modern Tuscans supports the near eastern origin of Etruscans”   []. For general information about Etruscans and their civilization in Italy, see the Wikipedia link at

“Etruscans referred to themselves as Rasenna, but to the Romans and Greeks they were Etrusci, Tusci, Tyrrheni, or Tyrseni. To the modern Italians they are still Etrusci and the name of the Etruscan Sea is still the Tyrrhenian, after perhaps 3,000 years.” [].

It is said that Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, but it is not clear why it is so different from the names Etrusci, Tusci, Tyrrheni, or Tyrseni as the name Rasenna does not have any linguistic relation to these names. This difference in names may be explained as follows:  The name RASENNA (or RASNA) is most likely another religious identity related to the Sky-God concept in accordance with the ancient Turanian civilization; while the other names such as ETRURIA, ETRUSCAN and TYRRHENI, TYRSENI or TYRSENOI are related to their ethnic identity that is derived from the Sky-God name TUR (TYR, THOR) which is also the linguistic root of the names TURAN, TURANIAN, TURKISTAN, TURKIYE, THRACIA, TURÖY, TYRIAN, TURKMEN, TURK and more.  I believe that even the name RASENNA (or RASNA) is an altered form of an original name in Turkish.
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About the name of the Etruscan King LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS by Dr. Polat Kaya

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

Etruscan kings reigned in ancient ROME (i.e., “KIZIL ALMA”) for at least a century. One of the Etruscan kings was named LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS.   In my study at url , I noted that one of the son’s of the Lydian King ATYS who lead a part of the Lydian population to what is presently called “Italia” was named TARCHON which is the Turkish name TARKAN (TARQAN).  We note that the Latinized title of this Etruscan king “LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS” uses this Turkish name TARKAN.  Latinized names are mostly ciphers of Turkish words or phrases!

Below I will analyze the three names of this kingly title by deciphering them which provide us with important information relating to his true identity. First let us start with the Romanized name TARQUINIUS which contains a number of meanings in Turkish. I will start with identity decipherments.

a)    When TARQUINIUS is rearranged as “USII-TARQUN”, we see an altered form of Turkish “ÖZi TARKAN” meaning “himself is Tarkan”, “He is Tarkan”.   Tarkan is a pure Turkish name. Turkish word ÖZi (ÖZÜ)  means “self, himself, herself”.

b)    When TARQUINIUS is rearranged as “TURQ-ANIIUS”, we see an altered form of Turkish “TURK hANIYIZ” meaning “we are Turk Lords”.

c)    When TARQUINIUS is rearranged as “TUR-QANIUIS”, we see an altered form of Turkish “TUR CANIYIZ” meaning “we are Turmen”, “we are Turkmen”.

d)    When TARQUINIUS is rearranged as “TUR-QANIUIS”, we see an altered form of Turkish “TUR KANIYIZ” meaning “we are the Tur blood”, “we are Turk blood”.

e)     When TARQUINIUS is rearranged as “TURQIN-UIAS”, we see an altered form of Turkish “TURKIN ÖYÜZ” meaning “we are home of Turk”.
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Remembering ATATURK by Ayhan Ozer



This month the Turkish nation commemorates the 73rd anniversary of Ataturk’s passing. On this solemn occasion, rather than lamenting his loss, it is more fitting to take stock candidly of how true we have been to the legacy of this great leader.

Ataturk, now more than a mortal, is an ideal that permeates past, present and the future in many ways. He has grown in stature and impact with the passage of time. Always fresh, he transcended centuries. Ataturk’s emergence was not accidental created by the circumstances of one-time event like a spark; rather, it is Providential, a heightening of Divine intervention. His accomplishments are the great Turkish epic. Long before his fateful odyssey, Ataturk was obsessed with the sacred mission of liberating the country from the backward regime of the sultans. This idea germinated in his mind very early, and became his lifetime calling. His keen vision and selfless devotion resonated with his people, and penetrated their heart and soul; he was consumed with a burning desire to free the downtrodden nation from humiliation and the tyranny of a corrupt dynasty.

Ataturk emerged as a leader, anointed and inspiring savior when the country was beaten and exhausted. He believed in the unspoiled core of the Turkish character. He infused his nation with hope, self-reliance and dignity. He embraced the democratic ideal, and made it an integral part of the Turkish heritage. He was an ultimate statesman, a great teacher and a devoted founding father. [Read more…]

Reflections On The Republic by Ayhan Ozer



This year, on October 29 the Turkish Nation will celebrate the 88th Anniversary of the proclamation of the Republic in Turkey. It is an epic saga that started on May 19, 1919 and came to a glorious climax on October 29, 1923 with the rebirth of a nation. No other nation on earth has ever gone through such an ordeal to prove itself as worthy of a dignified existence. The Turkish Nation paid its due with blood and enormous sacrifice in a life-and-death struggle to take its place in the sun.

In the WW I, while the country was defeated and prostrate before the combined enemy forces, a leader with an extraordinary vision stepped onto the world scene. He thwarted all the sinister designs laid out by the victorious powers to carve his homeland. His name was Mustafa Kemal, the architect of an incredible metamorphose ever undertaken by any nation. Following his miraculous military victories against enormous odds he steered his fragile nation through the intricate waters of the international politics. Unfortunately, in this saga the internal perpetrators proved more insidious and vicious than the external enemies. The last Sultan, Vahdettin, a renegade, had turned a puppet of the British; he put the country in enormous turmoil, and then defected to the British. On November 17, 1922 he and his retinue boarded a British warship and fled the country. This is cowardly, a treason unheard of in the annals of history, and certainly not in the tradition of the Ottoman dynasty.
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