ABOUT THE NAME “SARDINIA” AND THE ANCIENT “SARDINIANS” (Part-1) By Polat Kaya

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Sardinians - Nation Of Turks

I have been interested in the ancient Turanian identity of Sardinians ever since I saw some pictures of Turkish BALBAL-like stone statues, Menhirs and Dolmens in Sardinia. To me, they were the remnants of the civilization of the ancient Turanian peoples.  Recently, I have seen some very interesting and exciting photos of ancient artefacts from Sardinia in the internet and facebook. Some very talented Italian friends have presented their excellent photos of artefacts of ancient Sardinia.  In this study, I wish to bring clarity to some of the ancient names that have been used in identifying the Sardinians. Sardinians were close kins of Etruscans, Corsicans (Saka people), Pelasgians, Phoenicians and Carthaginians and also Anatolians and other Turanians.

The island of Sardinia, with many ancient structures in the forms of so-called NURAGHE, MENHIR, DOLMEN, Well-Temples and even a pyramid or ziggurat like structure, are the centre of attractions regarding its “oriental” past.  But all of these have remained a riddle with respect to who built them and what their purpose was.

The following background information from several internet reference sources regarding ancient Sardinia and Sardinians are relevant to this study.  I believe important information in Turkish regarding these ancient Sardinians are hidden in the names that were used in identifying these ancient peoples and their civilization. They become obvious and meaningful only after the names are deciphered, in different manners, into Turkish.

The ancients were talking about the power of words.  I have shown that the power of words by using Turkish, that is, a monosyllabic and agglutinative language of the ancient world. As a word of caution, I must note that this presentation is an unusual way of explaining things. The reader is probably not used to reading such presentations, therefore, the reader must read it carefully and patiently.

Ref.1.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardinia

“Sardinia (Italian: Sardegna  Sardinian: Sardigna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus). It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are (clockwise from north) the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.

The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[], romanised as sardus (feminine sarda); that the name had a religious connotation is suggested from its use also as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater “Sardinian Father” (misunderstood by many modern Sardinians/Italians as being “Father Sardus”), as well as being the stem of the adjective “sardonic”. Sardinia was called Ichnusa (the Latinised form of the Greek Hyknousa), Sandalion, Sardinia and Sardo by the ancient Greeks and the Romans.

Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km (93.83 mi) long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas (115 km) and the Flumendosa (127 km). There are 54 artificial lakes and dams which supply water and electricity. The main ones are Lake Omodeo and Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, shallow, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km (1,149.54 mi) of the coastline.”

Ref.2.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardinia#Prehistory

“Sardinia is one of the most geologically ancient bodies of land in Europe. Though evidence of human visits date from the Palaeolithic period, permanent settlements only appear much later in the Neolithic age, around 6000 BC.

The first people to settle in northern Sardinia probably came from the Italian mainland via Corsica, particularly from Etruria (present-day Tuscany), while those who populated the central region of the island around the salt lakes of Cabras and St Giusta may have arrived from the Iberian Peninsula by way of the Balearic Islands. The settlements founded around the Gulf of Cagliari seem to be of various origins.[5]

Evidence of trade with Aegean (Eastern Mediterranean) centres is present in the period 1600 BC onwards; for example, fine ceramic products from Cydonia have been recovered in Sardinia.[citation needed] As time passed, the different Sardinian peoples appear to have became united in language and customs, yet remained divided politically as various small, tribal groupings, at times banding together, and at others waging war against each other. Habitations consisted of round thatched stone huts, similar to those of present-day shepherds.”

“From about 1500 BC onwards, villages were built around the round tower-fortresses called nuraghi (Northern Sardinian nuraghes, Southern Sardinian nuraxis, plurals of nuraghe and nuraxi respectively), which were often reinforced and enlarged with battlements. The boundaries of tribal territories were guarded by smaller lookout nuraghi erected on strategic hills commanding a view of other territories. Today some 7,000 nuraghi dot the Sardinian landscape. According to some scholars, the Nuragic peoples are identifiable with the Shardana, a tribe of the “Sea Peoples”.[6]”

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The source reference (Ref.1) above gives us the following river names:

“Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km (93.83 mi) long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas (115 km) and the Flumendosa (127 km). There are 54 artificial lakes and dams which supply water and electricity. The main ones are Lake Omodeo and Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, shallow, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km (1,149.54 mi) of the coastline.”

1.    About the Sardinian River names TIRSO, COGHINAS and FLUMENDOSA

a)    The name TIRSO is a somewhat altered form of the Turkish name “TUR SU” meaning “Tur water” (Tur river) where the name TUR is one ancestral name of the Turanian Tur /Turk/Oguz peoples and is also a name of the Sky Father God,  the Sun-God and the Moon-God of the ancient Turanians.  The Sun, described as “OD ER”, “UTU ER” (TUR), means “the Fire Man”, (“the Sun man”) of the sky.  This is the personification of the Sun and it has become a name of the Sun-God believing Central Asiatic Turanians,  The name TUR in the form “UTU ER” also means the “bull-man” (cattleman) which refers to their “domesticated cattle” based economy.  In this regard, in addition to cattle raising, there is also the domesticated sheep and horse raising by the ancient Turanians. The ancient Turkish word UT means “ox” (cattle) and “UT ER” means “male cattle”, that is, “the BULL”.  The so-called English term OX is an altered form of Turkish word OKUZ – meaning the same. The name Italia is also based on the Turkish expression “UT ILI” meaning “the cattle country”.  Turkish word SU means “water”.

So, this river name TIRSO is one first sign that the ancient Sardinians were Turkish speaking TUR (Turk/Oguz) peoples!

b)    The name of the COGHINAS river, rearranged as “GOC-HAN-SI” is the altered form of the Turkish name “GÖK HAN SU” meaning “Water of  Sky Lord” where the name GÖK HAN, meaning “Sky Lord”, was the name of one of the six sons of the OGUZ Kagan in the Turkish Oguz Kagan epic story. So the name of this Sardinian river has been given after the name of the Turanian Sky Lord  – (GÖK HAN).  This again makes the Ancient Sardinians a Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples!  Below we will see that they called themselves by the Turkish name “AN TURKIZ” (GÖK TURKIZ) meaning “we are the Sky Turks, we are the lord Turks”!

c)    The name of the FLUMENDOSA river rearranged as “MEN-AL-OD-SU-F” is the altered form of the Turkish name “MEN AL OD SU” meaning “I am the Red Fire water”, “I am the Red Sun river”.  So, the name of this river is also dedicated to the Sky Deity (Sun God), that is, to that “RED FIRE” but in Turkish!

Thus, this is another name that makes the ancient Sardinians a Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples and their original language was TURKISH!

Turkish word MEN means “I, I am”,  AL means “red”,  OD means “fire”,  AL OD means “red glowing fire; sun”.

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The very fact that Sardinia has 54 artificial lakes is indicative of the fact that this island is normally a dry place. From literature, we learn that Sardinia seems to be having chronic water shortage problems presently.  My view is that, if this is so now, this problem must have existed in Sardinia in ancient times as well. The ancient Sardinians being the “Sea People”, that is, being masters of the “waters”, must have faced this water problem and conceived solutions for it – to survive on the island.  I feel that 7000 Nuraghes in the country must have something to do in solving this water shortage problem on the island.

2.   Sardinian Well Temples and Water worshipping:

A paper by Sandro Pintus, Blue Planet, at url http://www.catpress.com/dedpla/acque/uetempli.htm,  gives a good account of the so-called “The Ancient Water Temples of Sardinia”.  He describes them as “The well temples where, 3,000 years ago, the nuraghi peoples worshipped the Waters”.  This is very much the ancient Turanian worshipping cult where the underground waters were regarded as sacred and important for life preservation where surface waters were insufficient.  The so-called Greek “YER-SU””ORPHEUS” myth is very much a story of this ancient Turanian water cult.  According to Apollodorus and a fragment of Pindar, Orpheus’s father was Oeagrus, a Thracian king.  Even the name THRACIAN (referring to the people of Thracia) rearranged as “THRANCI-A”, is the altered form of the Turkish word “TURANCI O” meaning “he is Turanian”.  Additionally, the name THRACIA is from the Turkish expression “TÜRK ÖYU” meaning “house of Turks”.

The mythological name OEAGRUS, rearranged as “O-AGER-SU”, is the altered and Hellenized form of the Turkish expression “O AKAR SU” meaning “it is running water”, “It is river water”.  Thus, this so-called “Greek mythological name is actually a personification of the running waters.  His mythological son was ORPHEUS who was supposedly a born musician!

In this context,  the name ORPHEUS, rearranged as “PER-SU-OH”, is the altered and Hellenized form of the Turkish word “BIR SU O” meaning “it is one water”, “it is any water”. The music of  ORPHEUS is the mythological personification of the “voice” (i.e., the sound) of running waters in nature.  All running waters make natural “music” as they run over the rocks and waterfalls.  His (ORPHEUS) music was so beautiful that when he “played”, all animals followed him, even the trees followed him and the fish jumped for joy.  Yes, the life-giving water (SU) was so important for living beings that wherever its musical “voice” was heard, every living being went gravitated to it – so that they could drink from it or benefit from it!  Europeans use this word ORPHEUS as their own, but they do not know that it has also been usurped from Turkish – contrary to the known Hellenic mythology.

Most likely, the Sardinians also had an underground water system to overcome their water shortage problems.  The presence of “Well Temples” in Sardinia is an indication of it. Similar to this is the KANAT water system of ancient Turkistan (where means “kanat””canal,  water guidance system” for subterranean water)  conduit system) which brought the underground waters to surface to be used by people.

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3.   Sardinian BETILE and Turkish word TEPELI:

Ref.3.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giants%27_grave
“Giants’ grave (Italian: Tomba dei giganti, Sardinian: Tumbas de sos gigantes) is the name given by local people and archaeologists to a type of Sardinian megalithic gallery grave built during the Bronze Age by the Nuragic civilization. They can be found throughout Sardinia, and so far 321 have been discovered.
A stone cairn lies over the burial chamber itself. Some examples have a cup-shaped entrance similar to the court cairn tombs of Ireland.

Tomb of the Giant in Lanusei.

There are two general types of giant’s tomb.

In the so-called “slab type”, uncut slabs are buried on end in the ground and are arranged side-by-side. There is usually a central stele, which is the largest (up to 4 m in height) slab and has a doorway cut through it. The sepulchres have a characteristic rectangular plan with an apse. The burial chamber is usually 5 to 15 meters long and 1 to 2 meters high. The structures were originally covered by a mound resembling the shape of an overturned ship. Near the entrance was an obelisk (betile in Sardinian), which symbolizes the gods or ancestors who watched over the dead.”

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The “overturned ship” makes a convex heap which constitutes a hill shape, that is, “TEPE” in Turkish.  The overturned ship is also a symbol of a “dead ship”, hence the symbol of a “dead sailor”.  Ancient Sardinians were Sea-People and therefore – sailors.  Burying their dead in mounds shaped like overturned ships verifies that the ancient Sardinians were “Sea Peoples”, and also, that religiously, they were the believers of the God-Head and the Human-Head duality (i.e., “TEPE”) concept.  For that reason, even the 7000 Suraghes, distributed all over the country, are all built in the shape of a TEPE.

It is interesting to note that the Sardinian religious concept represented by the term “BETILE” was also used by the Phoenicians. See “Coin of Macrinus” [Sabatino Moscati, “The world of the Phoenicians, 1973, p. 76, and on p. 77, where he uses the term “BETYL”. A BETYL is defined as “a sacred stone, often in the form of a block trimmed into a conical shape. See also omphalos.” An omphalos is defined as “the centre or hub of something”. In this context, the SUN is the “centre” of our solar system where the solar system turns around the sun, and the “Head” is the “hub” of any living being such as “man” and other living beings which include even villages, cities, countries as well since they too have a “head” (centre) place where a ruler-establishment carries on the governing of the affairs of the community.

We note that the term “betyl” is nothing but “a hill shape”, that is, TEPE in Turkish.  In fact, the Phoenician “BETYL” and the Sardinian “BETILE” are one and the same – and they are from the Turkish word “TEPELI” – meaning “with head”. Interestingly, there is the Turkish word “TAPILI” which means “it is worshipped”.  This again hilites the concept of the “human head” as a sacred and Godly being for the ancient Turanians.  This verifies the above reference saying: “The burial chamber is usually 5 to 15 meters long and 1 to 2 meters high. The structures were originally covered by a mound resembling the shape of an overturned ship. Near the entrance was an obelisk (betile in Sardinian), which symbolizes the gods or ancestors who watched over the dead.” Ancient Turks were “ancestor worshipping peoples”.  Putting up so-called grave monuments, menhirs, dolmens, stela (from Turkish ÖLÜTAŞI meaning “dead person’s stone, gravestone”) are the living testaments to that ancient Turanian belief!

4.   The Roman term Macrinus:

The Roman term Macrinus appears in the titles of Roman kings.  The Roman Imperial Coins have this term Macrinus, and they are even known with the name Macrinus Denarius.  These Roman coins have the “head” of the king, that is, “TEPE” in Turkish, on one face of the coin. Here again, we find the Sardinian “BETILE” (BETYL) concept on the face of these coins.  The ancient Sardinian NURAGHES seems to be another form of the same sacred concept put on the map of Sardinia in three-dimensional form.

The Roman term MACRINUS, rearranged as “CUNAS-RIM”, is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “GÜNEŞ ERIM” meaning “I am the Sun Man”, “I am the Sun”. By this Turkish definition, the king is referring to himself as the SUN – in Turkish, and thus he becomes the “hub” (center) of the country.

Interestingly, the Aryan Roman term DENARIUS, rearranged as “DANRE-IUS”, is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “TANRI YÜZÜ” meaning “the face of God”. Thus, this name of the coin (DENARIUS) declared the person on the face of the coin as “god’s face”.  Of course, the coin carried the face of a man who claimed himself as God.  But this concept came from the Turanian religious civilization which regarded the Sun and the Human head as parallel in creativity. By this definition in Turkish, the Roman kings elevated themselves to the level of God – but they did it in a hidden using anagrammatized Turkish definitions – although they denied the existence of this most ancient Turkish civilization of the world!

Curiously, when the Aryan Roman term DENARIUS is rearranged as “DANRE-USI”, it is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “TANRI ÖZi” meaning “God himself”.  By this definition in Turkish, the Roman kings not pretend as being “God” but further claim themselves as “God himself” and even act as one!  All of this amazing self-elevation of ancient kings are done in Turkish – the most ancient language of the world!

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5.    The name SARDINIA and its related versions:

Reference 1 above tells us that:

“The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[], romanised as sardus (feminine sarda); that the name had a religious connotation is suggested from its use also as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater “Sardinian Father” (misunderstood by many modern Sardinians/Italians as being “Father Sardus”), as well as being the stem of the adjective “sardonic”. Sardinia was called Ichnusa (the Latinised form of the Greek Hyknousa), Sandalion, Sardinia and Sardo by the ancient Greeks and the Romans.”

It is said in the above reference that the word SARDONIC is the adjective related to the name SARDINIA. From the adjective “SARDONIC”, most likely, the name SARDINIA was initially in the form of “SARDONIA”. The Greek form of the term SARDONIC is given as SARDONIOS, SARDONIA, SARDONION, [Divry’s Modern English – Greek and Greek – English Dictionary, 1988, p. 671]. In this form, the name SARDONIA, rearranged as “DORANS-IA”, is the Romanized form of the Turkish expression “TURANCi ÖYI” (TURANCI EVI) meaning “house of Turanian”. This would be one of the most relevant attributes of the name of Sardinia. As we will see below, other attributes of Sardinians will support this view.

a)    Similarly, the Greek word SARDONIOS, rearranged as “S-DORANS-OI”, is the altered and Hellenized form of the Turkish expression “aS TURANCI ÖYI” (BIR TURANCI EVI) meaning “one house of Turanians”. This verifies the above definition obtained from SARDONIA.

b)    Again, the Greek word SARDONIOS, rearranged as “SARI-OD-NOS”, is the altered form of the Turkish expression “SARI OD-AN’UZ” meaning “we are the yellow fire of sky”, “we are the follower of the yellow fire of sky”, “we are sun-worshipping people”.   This refers to their Turanian sun-worshipping religion.
Turkish word SARI means “yellow”, OD means “fire”, AN means “sky; plurality suffix”, OD-AN means “Sky Fire”, that is, “the Sun”.

c)    Again, the Greek word SARDONIOS, rearranged as “SARI-OD-NOS”, is the altered form of the Turkish expression “SARI OD-hAN’UZ” meaning “we are the yellow fire lords”, “we are the lords of the yellow fire of sky”, “we are the sun lords”.   This refers to their Turanian name of “GÜN HAN” meaning “Sun Lord” which was the name of the first son of the six sons of Oguz Kagan.  But the name “GÜN HAN” was also the name of the Phoenicians who were also named CANAANITES, that Semitized name was from Turkish name “GÜN HAN”.  Also called KINAANI which is again from Turkish “GÜN HAN”.  This makes the Sardinians and the Phoenicians Turanian kins of each other.  Phoenicians were also in Sardinia.

See Wikipedia URL  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicia

“Phoenicia (UK play /fɨˈnɪʃə/, US /fəˈniːʃə/;[2] from the Greek: Φοινίκη: Phoiníkē), was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC. The Phoenicians used the galley, a man-powered sailing vessel, and are credited with the invention of the Bireme.[3] They were famed in Classical Greece and Rome as ‘traders in purple’, referring to their monopoly on the precious purple dye of the Murex snail, used, among other things, for royal clothing, and for their spread of the alphabet (or abjad), upon which all major modern alphabets are derived.”

d)    Again, the Greek word SARDONIOS, rearranged as “SARI-DONOS”, is the altered and Hellenized form of the Turkish expression “SARI DONUZ” meaning “we are yellow pant wearers”. This refers to their wearing “yellow pants” as the symbol of their Turanian sun-worshipping religion.

Turkish word DON means “pants, baggy trouser; clothing”.

In order to understand the attributions of the name SARDINIA, let us understand the multi meanings in Turkish hidden in the adjective form of this name, SARDONIC. Using the power of the Turkish language in deciphering this word, in summary, we can deduce the following attributes about the ancient Sardinians from its various decipherments.

The ancient Sardinians were:
a)    “Turanians, from Turan”;
b)    “Tanri believers, Sky-God believers”;
c)    “Sky-Turks; Lord Turks”;
d)    “Turks from Turkiye”, “people from Anatolia”;
e)    “Tur/Turk man”;
f)    “water men”;
g)    “Saka men (Saka Turks)”, “Pelasgians; “fishermen”;
h)    “men of ocean”;
i)    “soldiers of the Sun”;
j)    “soldiers”;
k)     “followers of the sun”, “Sun worshipping people”;
l.1)   “the readers of written works”;
l.2)   “the top readers of written works”;
l.3)    “the readers of secrets”;
l.4)    “the readers of the winds”;
l.5)    “the readers of the God”;
m)     “water studying men”
n)    “men of ocean waters”;
o)   “sheep breeder men”;
p)   “cattle breeder men”;
q)    “yellow wood dealers”;
r)   “knowledge people, light people”;
s)   “wearing yellow pants”, “yellow pants people”.
All of these qualifications deciphered from the term SARDONIC, make the ancient SARDINIA as the “home of people with these attributes”.   Details of these findings are given below :

5.1    The Romanized word SARDONIC:

a)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “DORANCIS”, is a form of the Turkish expression “TURANCIYIZ”  meaning “we are Turanians, we are from Turan”. This definition identifies Sardinians as Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.  With this definition, Sardinia was a “House of Turanians”.

b)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “DANROCIS”, is a form of the Turkish expression “TANRUCIYIZ”  meaning “we are Tanri believers, we are Sky-God believers” . This definition makes them Sky-God TANRI believer peoples of Turan. This again identifies the Sardinians as Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.  With this definition, Sardinia was a “House of Turanian Tanri believing people”.

c)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “AN-DORCIS”, is a form of the Turkish expression “AN-TURKIZ” (GÖK TURKIZ; HAN TURKIZ)  meaning “We are Sky-Turks; We are Lord Turks”. This definition identifies Sardinians as being the Sky Turks (Gök Türk) and the island of Sardinia as an ancient “House of Turks”.

d)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “DORCIAS-N”, is a form of the Turkish expression “TURKIACi”  meaning “Turks from Turkiye”. This definition identifies the Sardinians as being from Anatolia.  With this definition, Sardinia was a “House of people from Anatolia”.

e)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “DORC-INSA”, is a form of the Turkish expression “TURK INSANI”  meaning “Turkman”. This definition identifies Sardinians as “TURKMEN”, that is as Turkish peoples! With this definition, Sardinia was a “House of Turkean”.

This meaning can be seen better in the name SARDINIAN (SARDONIAN), which when rearranged as “DOR-INSANA”, is a form of the Turkish expression “TUR INSANI”  meaning “Tur/Turk man”. This definition identifies Sardinians as “TURKMEN”, that is, as the Turkish peoples!

f)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SOCI-ARND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SUCI EReNDi” (SUCU EReNDi)  meaning “they were watermen”, “they were sea people”.  This meaning in Turkish describes them as “people of the sea” which they were!  Thus, with this definition, Sardinia was a “House of Sea People”.
Turkish word SU means “water”,  SUCI (SUCU, SAKA) means “water professional; skilful person in water affairs; water carrier”, ER means “man; soldier; hero; husband”, EREN means “men; soldiers; heroes; husbands”, ERENDi means “they are men, they are people”, EN (AN) means “ancient Turkish plurality suffix”.

g)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SCA-RNDI-O”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SAKA eReNDi O”  meaning “He is SAKA men”, “He is Saka Turks”! This definition in Turkish not only identifies them as the SAKA Turks but also puts them under the so-called name “Pelasgians”!  For clarity, at this time I give only one meaning in

Turkish of the name PELASGIAN.

The name  PELASGIAN, rearranged as “PALIGSEAN”, is a form of the Turkish expression “BALIKCIAN” (BALIKCILAR)  meaning “the fishermen”.  This definition in Turkish clearly establishes the reason why the “Pelasgians”, that is, the SAKA Turks were called “sea-going people” by the ancient Greeks.  Because they were the fishermen of the sea!

Additionally, the name PELASGIAN, rearranged as “BILGESAAN” or “BILGASEAN” is the altered, restructured form of the Turkish word “BILGICIAN” (BILGECILER) meaning “men of knowledge”.  This, of course, reminds us of the Turko-Sumerian word “BILGAMESH” (BILGEMISH), that is, the so-called “GILGAMESH” who was the “personification of knowledge” but in Turkish.

Turkish word BALIK means “fish”, BALIKCI means “fisher, fisherman”,  BALIKCIAN (BALIKCILAR) means “fishermen”, BILGI means “knowledge”, BILGICI (BILGE) means “he who has acquired knowledge”. Pelasgians were such Turanians.

Turkish name SAKA was the name of “SAKA Turks”, and the word SAKA (SUCU) means “waterman”.  Sakas were also called by the name SCYTHIAN (i.e., “ISKITLER” in Turkish). The Romanized and Christianized “SCOTS” of Scotland, were also the SAKA (ISKIT) Turks!

h)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “OCIANS-RD”, is a form of the Turkish expression “OKYANuS eRDi”  meaning “he is a man of the ocean”, “he is the man of the open sea”. This definition in Turkish again identifies the Sardinians as “the sea people” and as “men of the ocean”.  Turkish word OKYANUS means “ocean”.

i)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “ASCIR-OD-N”, is a form of the Turkish expression “ASKER OD aN”  meaning “soldier of sky Fire”, “Soldiers of the Sun” which they were as the believers of the Sun God!

j)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “ASCIRNDO”, is a form of the Turkish expression “ASKERaNDU” (ASKERLERDI)  meaning “They were soldiers” which makes them a soldier people – like all other Turks were soldiers and heroic people! No wonder it is said that “Romans had great difficulty in making the Sardinians submit to their authority.  Did not they commit mass suicide rather than surrender?”
Turkish word ASKER means “soldier”, OD means “fire”, AN means “sky; plurality suffix”, OD AN means “Sky Fire”, that is, “the Sun”, ASKERAN (ASKERLER) means “soldiers”, DU (DI, Di, DÜ) means “verbal ending suffix”.

k)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SARI-ODNC, is a form of the Turkish expression “SARI OD aNCi”  meaning “follower of the yellow fire of sky”, “follower of the sun”, “sun worshipping people” – which they were!

l.1)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SR-OCIAND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “eSeR OKIYANDi”  meaning “he was the reader of written works” – indicating that they were literary men!

l.2)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SR-OCIAND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SeR OKIYANDi” (BAŞ OKUYANDI)  meaning either “he was the top reader (of written works)” – indicating that they were accomplished literary men or “he was ahead-reader”, that is, they were horoscopic people! This is to tell events before they happen which was the subject of astrology – the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world. The Etruscans who were kns of the Sardinians were accomplished horoscopic people.  Most likely, the Sardinians were horoscopic also. The term horoscopy is said to be via Latin from Greek hōroskopos, from hōra ‘time’ + skopos ‘observer’.  I believe this etymology is misleading.

The Greek word HÖROSKOPOS, rearranged as “POSH-KÖROS-O”, is a form of the Turkish expression “BAŞ GÖRÖŞ O” (ÖN GÖRÜŞ O)  meaning “it is foresight, it is foretelling, it is seeing before it happens”. This is exactly the same as the Turkish expression “SER OKIYANDi” (BAŞ OKUYANDI)  which is within the word SARDONIC. Thus the Greek term is a word that has been fabricated from Turkish as I showed here.

l.3)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SR-OCIAND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SIR OKIYANDi”  meaning “he was the reader of secrets” – indicating that they were men who could read secret (knowledge)!

l.4)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SR-OCIAND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “eSeR OKIYANDi”  meaning “he was the reader of the winds”. As sea people,  they were capable of reading the winds for their benefit. It is said that they were trying to understand lightning and cloud formations. Evidently, astrology was a very important field for these ancient peoples.

l.5)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SR-OCIAND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “aSeR OKIYANDi”  meaning “he was the reader of God” – indicating that they were very religious men and thus were the readers of written works about the God concept!

Turkish words:

OKIYAN means “man who reads/writes; man who is a scholar”,

AS means “one; peerless”,
ER means “man”,
ASER means “one man; peerless man; God; the Sun; godly man;
ESER means “written works”,
SER (BAŞ, TEPE) means “head, top”,
SIR means “secret”, and
ESER means “wind” .

m)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “S-OCIAN-RD”, is a form of the Turkish expression “Su-OKIyAN eRDi”  meaning “he was water studying man”.  As the fishermen of the seas, it is natural that they studied the water in some kinds of schools. Turkish word SU OKIYAN means “he who studies water”.

n)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “ACON-SI-RD”, is a form of the Turkish expression “ACUN SU eRD”  meaning “he was the man of ocean waters” – which they were!
Turkish word ACUN means “endless”, SU means “water”, ACUN SU (OKYANUS) means “endless water, oceans”.

o)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “COIANS-RD”, is a form of the Turkish expression “KOYUNCU eRDi”  meaning “he was sheep breeder man”. They breed sheep (possibly cattle and horses too as these were the speciality of the ancient Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples).

Turkish word KOYUN means “sheep”, KOYUNCU means “sheep breeder”.

p)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “OCIS-ARND”, is a form of the Turkish expression “OKIZ (OKUZ) EReNDi”  meaning “they were cattle breeding men”.
Turkish word OKIZ (OKUZ, ÖKÜZ) means “Bull”.  The probably had horse breeding culture as well just like al other Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.

q)   The name  SARDONIC , rearranged as “SARI-ODNC, is a form of the Turkish expression “SARI ODuNCu”  meaning “yellow wood dealer”.  “Yellow pine wood” is mentioned in Sardinia.  It is said that Sardinia was the exported of wood for shipbuilding. There must be a “yellow” tree special to Sardinian geography like the “cedars” of Lebanon (i.e., Phoenicia)!

Turkish word ODUN means “wood”, ODUNCU means “wood dealer”.

r)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “NORSI-ACD”, is a form of the Turkish expression “NURCU AGaDi”  meaning “he is lord of enlightenment”. This definition identifies Sardinians as “knowledge people, light people”.  The name NURAGHE in the form of “NUR AGHE” is also Turkish “NUR AGA” meaning “lord of light, lord of enlightenment”.

Sardinian (Saridonian) "Yellow Pants" men
Sardinian (Saridonian) “Yellow Pants”

s)   The name  SARDONIC, rearranged as “SARI-DONC”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SARI DONCU”  meaning “he who wears yellow pants” – which the Sardinians (Sardonians) do!  This definition identifies Sardinians as “yellow pant people”.  In this case, the “yellow pant” would be the national dress symbol of Sardinians (SARIDONIAN) as believers of the yellow sun.  So their name also symbolizes this aspect of their clothing as a symbol of believing in the Sun. (See also Item 7. below).

Turkish word SARI means “yellow”, DON means “pants; the clothing worn on legs; dress, clothing”, DONCU means “he who wears certain clothing; he who makes pants”.   The following picture in Figures 1 and 2  below explain this very clearly!
Now, all of these decipherments that I enumerated above give us a lot of new identity information about the ancient Sardinians – some of which are already known but some are new revelations.

(Picture from Antonello di  Biase album in Facebook)

Sardinian (i.e. "SARIDONIAN" = "SARIDONLULAR") showing their national color of "yellow" (note the yellow dress of women and the yellow pants of man)
Sardinian (i.e. “SARIDONIAN” = “SARIDONLULAR”) showing their national color of “yellow” (note the yellow dress of women and the yellow pants of man)

Figure 4.  Turkish girls from Sivas in a national dance (“Sivas’in Yollarinda”)
Compare with the costumes of the Sardinian girls above.
Note the ancient SUN symbols on their aprons
and the RED-HEAD (AL BAS) symbolized with a red (AL) diadem.
(From http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghVQGXxhjBc)
***

5.2    The name SARDIGNA:

a)     The name SARDIGNA, rearranged as “SARI-GNDA”, is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “SARI GÜNDÜ” meaning “it is the yellow sun” which refers to their worshipping the Yellow (golden) Sun.

Sardinian girls dancing with their beautiful yellow/red dresses. Compare this with Turkish girls from Sivas below:
Sardinian girls dancing with their beautiful yellow/red dresses. Compare this with Turkish girls from Sivas below:

b)     The name SARDIGNA, rearranged as “NARSI-AGD”, is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “NARCI AGADI” meaning “he is fire dealing lord” which refers to their being people who do work with fire”.  This indicates they were probably doing metal smelting, ironworks and other metals.  Turkish is very much the Sardinan “NURAGHE”. See decipherment n) above.

c)    The name SARDIGNA, rearranged as “SAGA-RNDI”, is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression   “SAGA-eRENDI”  meaning “they were Saka men”.  Thus, this identifies them as the ancient SAKA Turks.  Turkish word SAKA means “waterman”, “seaman”, that is, “Sea People”.  At this point, I must point out that the English word SEA is nothing but the alienated and Anglicized form of the Turkish word “SU” meaning “water”.  All seas are “endless” waters!

Turkish girls from Sivas in a national dance ("Sivas'in Yollarinda") Compare with the costumes of the Sardinian girls above. Note the ancient SUN symbols on their aprons and the RED-HEAD (AL BAS) symbolized with a red (AL) diadem.
Figure 4 -Turkish girls from Sivas in a national dance (“Sivas’in Yollarinda”) Compare with the costumes of the Sardinian girls above. Note the ancient SUN symbols on their aprons and the RED-HEAD (AL BAS) symbolized with a red (AL) diadem.

d)    The name SARDIGNA, rearranged as “SARI-GAND”, is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “SARI KENT”  meaning “yellow city” or “yellow country”.  This name SARIGAND is very much similar to the ancient Turkistan city named SAMERGAND  (SAMERKANT) which is very likely the name SUMERGAND meaning the “SUMER CITY”.

Thus, in summary, the Sardignians (Sardinians) were:
a)   “yellow sun people”;
b)   “people who used fire (heat) for their works such as metal smelting and metal works”;
c)   “Saka men, watermen”;
d)   “yellow city men” or “yellow countrymen”.

***

5.3    The name SANDALION:

a)    The name SANDALION, rearranged as “SANDALN-OI”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SANDALaN ÖY” (SANDALLAR EVI)” meaning “house of boats”.  This makes the Sardinians a “people who were intensely involved with water-related works” because in order to go fishing in the open waters, they needed some kind of boat – implying that they were also boat builders and owners!
Turkish word SANDAL (KAYIK, TEKNE) means “boat”, AN  plurality suffix and ÖY means “house, home; country”.

b)    The name SANDALION, rearranged as “SANDALNI-O”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SANDALLI O” (KAYIKCI O)” meaning “he is boat owner”, “he is boat builder”.  This again makes the Sardinians a “sea people” because in order to go fishing in the open waters, they needed some kind of boat – implying that they were also boat builders and owners!

Turkish word SANDAL (KAYIK, TEKNE) means “boat”, SANDALLI means “people with boats”.

c)    The name SANDALION, rearranged as “ANADOLINS”  or “NADOLIANS”, is a form of the Turkish expression “ANADOLIANIZ” meaning “we are from Anatolia”.  This indicates that, like the Etruscans, the Sardinians or the Sandalions were originally from Anatolia!  The statement:  “The figures represented in the bronze statues of men carrying round shields and wearing helmets with horns could, therefore, have Anatolian origins. ” See  http://www.activsardegna.com/ichnusa/storie/miti_en.htm

Thus, the ancient Sandalion (i.e., Sardinians) were:

a)    “house of boats”;
b)    “boat owners”, “boat builders”
c)   “from Anatolia”, that is, “were originally Anatolians”.

***
Now let us use some of these ancient background information related to the Sardinians to understand their hidden meanings and identities.

6.    About the name SARDUS PATER:

a)    The so-called name “SARDUS PATER”, personifying the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god, is actually from Turkish expression “SARI OD APATIR” meaning “he is the Yellow Fire Father”, that is, the “Father SUN”!
Turkish word SARI means “yellow”, OD means “fire”, APA (PAPA, BABA) means “father”, APATIR (> “PATER”, “PEDER”) means “he is the father”, OD APA means “fire father (i.e., yellow sun)”.

***

7.    The Latin name SARDO:

a)    The Latin name SARDO, in the context of a country, rearranged as “SAR-OD”, is an altered and Romanized form of the Turkish expression SARI ÖyDü meaning “it is yellow house”, “it is a yellow country”. The colour ‘yellow’ comes from worshipping the golden coloured sun. Ancient Sardinians were sun-worshipping peoples.

b)    The Latin name SARDO, rearranged as “SAR-OD”, is an altered and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “SARi OD” meaning “yellow fire” which refers to the sun since Sardinians were sun-worshipping peoples.

c)    The Latin name SARDO, read as in Turkish, is from the Turkish word “SARiDU” meaning “it is yellow” which again refers to their sun-worshipping religion.
The color “yellow” is also verified from the fact that the Latin words Sardonius, Sardonia, Sardonium have the meaning of  “Sardinian” (people) and is also the name of a
plant called “Sardinian plant”, that is, “kind of acrid buttercup/poisonous plant, crowfoot”, [from William Whitaker’s Classics Technology Center,
“Words Latin-to-English and English-to-Latin Dictionary” at url http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/wordsonline.html .]
For “Sardinian Buttercup” plant see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranunculus
This plant has “yellow and white flowers”, and probably, among them is also the “pumpkins” (squash) flowers.

This is the colour that we see painted on many ancient Sardinian “NURAGHE” stone structures called “BETILE” (BETYL),
that is from Turkish “TEPELI” meaning “with hill” or “hill like”.

Figure 5.  Sardinian buttercup  (Genus: Ranunculus)

The Latin term RANUNCULUS, rearranged as “SARU-CUL-UNN”, is from the Turkish name
“SARU GÜL” (SARI GÜL) meaning “yellow rose” (yellow flower).  Thus, the source of this so-called Latin scientific term was Turkish!!!   The additional -UNN is most likely the altered form of the Turkish “plurality suffix “EN/AN”.  This makes the plant name from Turkish “SARI GÜLLER” meaning “yellow flowers”.

Turkish word SARI means “yellow” and GÜL means “rose; flower”.

Even the so-called Latin word GENUS is from Turkish. It has two forms:

a) when rearranged as “GENSU”, it is the altered form of Turkish word  CINSU (CINSI) meaning “its sort, type, kind, variety, category; genus,; sex; gender”;

b) when rearranged as “GUNES”, it is the altered form of Turkish word  GÜNEŞ meaning “sun”.

All of these indicate that the so-called “Latin” language is fabricated from Turkish – just like Greek and all the other “Indo-European languages!

***

8.   About the Greek name HYKNOUSA:

The Wikipedia reference above gave us the following additional information at url  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardinia :
“Sardinia was called Ichnusa (the Latinised form of the Greek Hyknousa), Sandalion, Sardinia and Sardo by the ancient Greeks and the Romans.”

The Greek name HYKNOUSA:

The Greek name HYKNOUSA  meaning “Sardinians” is also an important alternative name for cross-checking those attributions that we found for the term SARDONIC.  This word also contains important and relevant information regarding Sardinians but in Turkish.
In summary, we have the following attributes for Sardinians deciphered from the name

HYKNOUSA.  The Sardinians were:

a)   “House of Sun”;
b)   “house of Lord Oguz”;
c)   “Sky-Oguz lords ” (Sky-Turk lords);
d)   “house of Saka Lords”, “house of Saka Turks”, “house of Saka Huns”;
e)   “supreme lords of the water”;
f)   “school people”, “learned people”;
g)   “houses of light”, “houses of enlightenment”, “houses of learned people”;
h)   “good speaker”, “good language”;
i)   “ocean going people”, “open sea people”;
j)   “people who studied water”;
k)    “people who brought running water to houses”;
l)   “boat makers, boat owners, boat operators, boatmen”;
m)   “people who breeded sheep”;
n)    “cattle lords”, “house of cattle”;
o)   “sky-wise lords”;
p)    “village-wise lords”;
q)   “people who washed themselves”.

The detailed decipherments of this name are as follows:

a)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, in the context of a country, rearranged as “KUNASH-OY”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “GÜNEŞ ÖY” meaning “Sun House” (House of Sun) indicating that they were ancient Sun-believing Turanians.
Turkish word GÜNEŞ means “sun” and ÖY (EV) means “house, home, country”.

b)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, in the context of a country, rearranged as “OKUS-HAN-Y” or “KUS-HAN-OY”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “OKUZ HAN ÖY” (OGUZ HAN ÖYÜ) meaning “the house of Lord Oguz”.  This definition in Turkish not only identifies the ancient Sardinians as believers of the Turanian Sky deity OGUZ, but also identifies them as being from the house of Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.

c)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, when rearranged as “KY-OUS-HAN”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “GöY OGUZ HAN” meaning “Sky-Oguz lord ” (Sky-Turk lord) indicating that they were ancient Turanians Sky-Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples. Sky-Turks (Gök Turks) are known in history!

Turkish word GÖY (GÖK) means “sky” and HAN means “lord; a palace-like establishment”. By way of metaphor, “sky-dome” is one such establishment of nature! .

d)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “SKA-HUN-OY”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “SAKA HAN ÖY” (SAKA HUN ÖY) meaning “house of Saka Lord(s)”.  This definition again identifies them as the Saka Khans. In ancient India where the Turkish peoples had the Great Sun Empire, the Saka Turks were also called HUN (HUNA) which became the name of the Great Hun Empire of the Turks!

e)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “SU-HAKNY-O”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “SU HAKANU O” (SUCU O, SAKA O) meaning “he is the supreme lord of the water”.  This definition in Turkish identifies them as the ancient masters of anything to do with water.  That is why the Sardinians were known as “the Sea People”. This definition identifies them as the SAKA Turks (ISKIT Turks) who were also called by the Greeks “SCYTHIAN”.

The Greek name SCYTHIAN, rearranged as “SCY-HANTI”, is the altered, restructured and Hellenized form of the Turkish expression  “SuCU-HANT” (SUCU HANDI, SAKA HANTI) meaning “he is the lord of water”. That is why the Sardinians were known as “the Sea People”. They were all so-called PELASGIANS, that is, the ancient Saka Turks or by the general name of Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples! This decipherments also verifies above-deciphered meaning under c). This is only one meaning in Turkish, we may have other meanings as well, but not now.

Turkish word SU means “water” and HAKAN means “great lord, supreme lord”, SUCU means “he who deals with water, water is his business; SAKA (Turks)”, HAN means “lord”, -TI, -DI  are verbal suffix meaning “it is”.

f)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “OKUYANHS”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “OKUYANIZ” meaning “we are school people”, “we go to school”, “we are learned people”.  This definition identifies them as people who are enlightened by going to school, in other words, they had a school system in their country.
Interestingly, the name NURAGHE, rearranged as “AGUEN-HR”, also embodies the Turkish expression “OKUYAN ER” meaning “man of learning”. Thus these two definitions in Turkish from two different names related to Sardinians to verify each other. In fact, the term NUR in Turkish means “light; enlightenment”.  With these confirmations, it can be said with confidence that the NURAGHES were some kind of “learning” centres built in the form of an elongated “head” (i.e., ‘TEPE, BAŞ” in Turkish) surrounded by a village.  These elongated “heads” we also find with the ancient “Phoenician” men.  In fact, any learning by man in any institution involves the “human head” both from the point of teachers and from the point of learners. The human head is the creator of everything that is man-made on earth.  Head is the creator!  Thus the NURAGHES, in one meaning, symbolize the “human head”.  For example, the Turkish man name NURI means “enlightened man”.

g)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “SHUK-OYAN”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “IŞIK ÖYAN” (IŞIK ÖYLER” meaning “houses of light”, “houses of enlightenment”, “houses of learned people”.  This definition again identifies them as people who are enlightened by going to school. It also means they were people who religiously believed in the sunlight, that is, Turkish “NUR”.

h)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “AY-KONUSH”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “EYI  KONUŞI” meaning “good speaker”, “good language”.  This definition implies that the Sardinians had a “good language”. Since they called themselves “we are Sky-Turks; we are lord Turks”, their good language must have been the Turkish language as we are witnessing it now through these decipherments!  (See Item c) under name SARDONIC).

i)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “OKYANUSH”, where letter H can be H, E, I, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “OKYANISI” (OKYANUSCU) meaning “he who goes ocean”, “open sea people”.  This definition identifies the Sardinians as ocean-going people, like all other so-called PELASGIANs.

The Turkish term OKYANUS which means “ocean” is seen better from the Latin term OCEANUS.  In this case, when the Latin name is rearranged as “ACEN-SU-O” or “ACUN-SE-O”, it is from the Turkish expression “ACUN SU O” meaning “it is endless waters”.

j)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “SU-OKHYAN”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “SU OKUYAN” meaning “he who studies water”.  This definition in Turkish again identifies the ancient Sardinians as people who studied different aspects of water and its uses – in homes and in the country.  That is why they were called Sea People (i.e., “SAKA” in Turkish).  The Term SAKA means “waterman” in Turkish!  The Saka people not only brought drinking water to their houses, but they were also the people who provided irrigation waters to fields, built water channels, dried up the swampy areas, and also fished in the rivers, lakes and seas! No wonder they also called themselves “supreme lords of the water” (see my decipherment c) above).  Their skills in mastery of waters can be achieved only in schools – indicating that they had a highly developed school system in their country.  In this context the following decipherment of the name is very significant:

k)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “OYH-AKN-SU”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “ÖYE AKAN SU” meaning “running water to houses”.  This definition in Turkish states that they had running waters in their houses.  The Etruscans were famous for their so-called “AQUADUCTUS”  which itself is a term made up from Turkish “SU AQUTUCUDU” (SU ARIKI, SU KANALI) meaning “it is water carrier, water pipe, water channel that guides running water”. That is what an “aquaductus” is all about!  If Etruscans did build “aquaductus”, it is a sure thing that their brethren in the next-door island would also do that! The reference above states the presence of the ancient water supplying system, with its big underground ducts.

l)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “KAYUHSO-N”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “KAYUKCUAN” (KAYUKCULAR) meaning “boat makers, boat owners, boat operators, boatmen”.  Since the ancient Sardinians (SAKALAR) were seen going peoples, this definition in Turkish appropriately identifies them as “boat makers, operators and owners”.  That is the trade of water-dealing people! Sardinians are said having warships operated in the Mediterranean sea.

Turkish word KAYUK means”boat”,  KAYUKCU means”boatman, boat maker, boat owner”,  KAYUKCUAN (KAYUKCULAR) means “boatmen, boatmakers, boat owners, boat operators”, AN (LER, LAR) means  “plurality suffix”.
m)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “KOYUNSAH”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “KOYUNCU”  meaning “he who breedes sheep”.  Ancient Sardinians (SAKALAR) were sheep breeding people.  This definition in Turkish appropriately identifies them as “owners of sheep” which was one of the home economic bases of all Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.

Turkish word KOYUN means”sheep”,  KOYUNCU means”sheep owner, sheep breeder”.

n)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “OKUS-HANY”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “OKUZ HANU” meaning “cattle Lord; the house of cattle”.  This definition in Turkish identifies the ancient Sardinians as cattle breeding people.  Cattle breeding was another one of the home economic bases of all Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.

Turkish word OKUZ means”ox, bull; cattle”,  HAN means”lord;  big house”.

o)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “KOY-US-HAN”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “GÖY US HAN” meaning “Sky wise lord”.  This definition in Turkish identifies the ancient Sardinians as knowledgable people about the sky or the sky observers.

p)    It is also the Turkish expression “KÖY US HAN” meaning “village wise lord”.  This definition identifies the ancient Sardinians as wise people of village building, administering, etc.. Evidently, the ancient Sardinians were good self-sustained village builders as some of the Nuraghe pictures indicate so!

q)    The Greek name HYKNOUSA, rearranged as “YHKANUSO”, is a different form of the Turkish expression “YIKANUCU” meaning “he who washes himself/herself”.  This definition in Turkish identifies the ancient Sardinians as self washing people.  Turanians are known for their bath houses such as Turkish “HAMAM”.   Some of the Sardinian Nuraghes could have a function related to this concept.(???)  Interestingly, the Latin term HYGIEINA  (English term HYGIENE), is very much the same as HYKNOUSA , that is, “YIKANUCU”.   The Latin term HYGIEINA, rearranged as “EIH-YIGAN”, is an anagrammatized and Romanized form of the Turkish expression “EYI YIKAN” meaning “good washing” or “wash yourself well”.  That is what the “hygiene” is all about!  It is good washing and cleaning!

***

9.    The Latin name ICHNUSA:

In summary, we have the following attributes for Sardinians deciphered from the name ICHNUSA.  The Sardinians were:

a.   “a house of the sun”;
b.   “sun and moon people”;
c)   “skylight” or “light lord” people;
d)   “sunlight” people;
e)   “the water lord”, “the Saka lord” people;
f.1)   “waterman”, like “water living life”;
f.2)    “soldier man”;
g)   “school people”, “learned people”;
h)   “fliers”, “flying people”, “Icarus” like people”. (This needs to be verified yet!);
i)   “sheep breedes”.

The detailed decipherments of this name are as follows:

a)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “CUNASH-I”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “GÜNEŞ öY” meaning “house of sun”.  This was also one of the decipherments of the Greek name HYKNOUSA.

b)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “CUNASH-I”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “GÜNEŞ aY” meaning “sun and moon”.  Sardinians (SHARDANA) are known to wear a headdress having two horns with a sun disk in between.  The horns make up the “crescent moon” of the Turks, thus, this headdress symbol of Sardinians is nothing but the present “crescent moon and sun” symbol on the flag of the Turks!   The Turkish God name OGUZ, which is also a man’s name in Turkish culture, is also homonym with the Turkish word OKUZ meaning “ox”.  Two horns of ox metaphorically form a “crescent moon”.  Due to these homonym nature of the two Turkish words, the “God Oguz” was symbolized in the form of a “BULL”. The term homonym is defined as: “each of two words having the same pronunciation but different meanings, origins, or spelling”.

c)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “ISHUC-AN”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “IŞIK AN” (IŞIK Han) meaning “skylight” or “light lord” which again points to the sun and its light.  It is normal for a sun-worshipping people to identify themselves with the name of their belief – the Sun.

d)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “CUN-ISHA”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “GÜN IŞI” meaning “sunlight”.

e)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “SUCI-HAN”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “SUCU HAN” (SAKA HAN) meaning “the water lord”, “the Saka lord”.  This definition in Turkish again identifies the ancient Sardinian as the Saka Turks.

f)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “SU-CANIH”, is an altered form of two Turkish expressions:

f.1)   “SU CANI” meaning “water man; water living life”.  This definition in Turkish again identifies the ancient Sardinian “water people” so much that it gives the impression that they were beings who lived in the water;

f.2)   “SÜ CANI” (ASKER) meaning “soldier man”.  This definition in Turkish identifies the ancient Sardinian as soldier people – like all ancient Turanians were!  The Turkish word SÜ means “soldier”.

g)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “UCIANHS”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “OKUyANIZ” meaning “we are school people”, “we go to school”, “we are learned, people”.  This definition identifies them as people who are enlightened by going to school, in other words, they had a school system in their country.

h)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “UCHANIS”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “UÇANIZ” meaning “we are fliers”, “we fly”.  This definition identifies the ancient Sardinians as “flying people”.  It is curious that the ancient Greek mythology also talks about a “flying man” named “ICARUS”.  See Icarus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“In Greek mythology, Icarus (the Latin spelling, conventionally adopted in English; Greek: Ἴκαρος, Íkaros, Etruscan: Vikare[1]) is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus. The main story told about Icarus is his attempt to escape from Crete by means of wings that his father constructed from feathers and wax. He ignored instructions not to fly too close to the sun, and the melting wax caused him to fall to his death”.

Of course, he did not really fly too close to the sun if he ever flied at all!  But, it is curious that the Latin term ICHNUSA, meaning “Sardinians” and also meaning “we are fliers”, and, the Latin term ICARUS have the same meanings in Turkish after decipherments.

The Latin name ICARUS, rearranged as “UCARIS”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “UÇARIZ” meaning “we fly”.  I do not believe that this is just a myth and had no connection with ancient reality!  We also have the pictures of “UFO-like” objects in the

Uighur Bezeklik ancient UFOs? Thousand Buddha Caves paintings, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntWOFW9eVM0

Additionally, the name of one of the six sons of Oguz Kagan was “GÖK HAN” meaning “Sky Lord” which implies – the ruler of the sky, that is, the sky God. But additionally, it implies possibly a group of ancient Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples had invented some kind of flying device by which some people were flying. Uighur Bezeklik paintings show many “flying” objects that emit flame from its bottom!  As we see here, the ancient Sardinian name ICHNUSA also has the Turkish word  “UÇANIZ” meaning “we are fliers”.

Similarly, The Latin name DAEDALUS, (father of ICARIUS) meaning the “master craftsman”, rearranged as “USDA ELDA”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “USTA ELDI” meaning “it is the master hand”, “it is the skilful hand”.  Making a device that flies, so-called a plane is surely the product of very many skilful hands operated by knowledgable minds. Thus, this term DAEDALUS is also made up from a Turkish expression. It identifies this mythological character as a “a skilled practitioner of a particular art or activity with his hands and enlightened mind” that builds all kinds of things in the world.

Zecharia Sitchin, in his book named “The 12TH PLANET”, p. 159-160, talks about the journey of Gilgamesh and his lifelong friend ENKIDU to the Land of Tilmun, where Gilgamesh falls asleep and sees a dream.  In awakening, Gilgamesh talks about his dream to his friend ENKIDU.  In his dream, he sees a mysterious rocketlike thing hidden in the mountains.  Zecharia Sitchin writes: “The shem that Gilgamesh required in order to reach the Abode of the Gods was undoubtedly a rocket ship, launching of one of which he had witnessed as he neared the “landing place”. The rockets, it would seem, were located inside of a mountain, and the area was a well-guarded, restricted zone”.  He then refers to

Figure 77 on page 160 where a rocketship like object is shown.

(In bracket here, I would like to note that the original form of the name GILGAMESH was BILGAMESH in Sumerian.  But the name BILGAMESH is also the Turkish word BILGEMISH meaning “he who has acquired knowledge”.  It is the personification of knowledge, that is, “BILGI” in Turkish. The name ENKIDU, the friend of BILGAMESH, in one meaning, is a form of the Turkish word “KENDI-U” meaning “that is HIMSELF”.  A person and his knowledge are always lifelong friends!  The source of theis ancient epic story was in Turkish!)
In view of these explanations, again this “flying man” concept by ancient Turanians becomes a credible idea to think about!  Whether men were flying or not in ancient times is not known presently.  But, it seems that there are indications from ancient Turanians pointing to the probable reality of that concept in ancient times.

Turkish word USTA means “master craftsman” such as a master blacksmith, EL means “hand” and ELDI means “it is hand”.

By the way, it is said that ICARUS was trying to fly away from the island of CRETE. The name CRETE rearranged as “TERC-E”, is the anagrammatized form of the Turkish word “TURK-Ev” meaning “House of Turk”. The ancient people of Crete were Turanians as their top city name KNOSSOS is from Turkish “GÜNEŞ” meaning “sun”. The Minoans of CRETE were ancient Sun believing Turanians and were also Pelasgians.

i)    The Latin name ICHNUSA, rearranged as “CUIANSH”, is an altered form of the Turkish expression “KOYUNCU” meaning “he who breeds sheep”.  Ancient Sardinians (SAKALAR) were sheep breeding people.  This definition in Turkish appropriately identifies them as “owners of sheep” which was one of the main economic activities of all Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples (in addition to cattle and horse breeding).
So we see that all of these deciphered meanings in Turkish are verifying each other and even more.  This is so because the ancient Turanian language of Turkish went through a confusing stage from which came the so-called “Indo-European” and Semitic languages.  Now deciphering the “Indo-European” words back to their possible Turkish meaning is doable again by their given meanings and also by the power of the Turkish language!

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9.    Part-2 of this study about the ancient Sardinians will be about the name NURAGHE and the NURAGHE structures of Sardinians.

With all of these insight explanations, I believe I have explained known and/or unknown attributions about the ancient Sardinians and the name of Sardinia!

I hope that this essay will answer some of the unknown aspects of ancient Sardinia and Sardinians!

With my best wishes to all,

Polat Kaya
18/092011

http://www.polatkaya.net/Sardinians_AnTurks_GokTurks.html

1 COMMENT

  1. They’re old Qadjar Persian Empire linked to Turkey, so the Nuraghe and sculptures are designed to collect water. So the Italian area became part of the Persian and Turkish empires, also Celtic, even invaded Egypt and North Africa, sailed to America on Rostro boats. Hence the importance of sardines in certain Celtic and Turkish, these people eating kind of Italian are Sardinian yet look and act, and eat different from the culture they married into.

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