The most ancient history of Bulgars – 3

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First Bulgarian Kingdom

Chapter 17. War between Akhad and Adam and the reign of Adam (1118 – 1176) AD)

To the throne was raised Azgar, but soon he mysteriously died during a hunt near the Nur-Suvar. Akhad became the Kan, and he immediately ratified the arrangement between the kazanchis and the subashes of the Martüba and Kashan, and with that, he calmed the country. After that, he helped Asan to secure in the Shir area. The kursybai gladly took part in this campaign against local the Türks. Asan with the help of the Kan fought against the Rus for a few years, but was defeated and enticed by the Rus to leave from the Bulgarian service.

In the 1076 AD, the Kan had one more trouble, Emir Adam, the son of Baluk, escaped from the guards. The Khin Tarkhan Dugar sheltered the prince, married him to his daughter and, in exchange for a promise by the Emir to give him a bigger autonomy, agreed to help with winning the throne. Akhad too hasty declared the Ibragim city capital, and Adam took Bulyar without any resistance and proclaimed himself the Kan. Bulyar became again the capital. Akhad recognized the new Kan and kept the Ibragim for himself…

As an excuse for the overthrow of Akhad was a refusal of the Rus to pay the Djir Tribute after the defeats of Asan, and the Kan’s acceptance of the refusal. Adam aimed to restore the tribute and the ways to the Artan and Bashtu.

In two years the Emir Akhad under his order made a campaign by the river Moskha, and defeated and killed the Galidjian Bek Khalib. Emir brought with him a big tribute collected near rivers Djuk, Moskha and in the Djir, and also brought many Djirian Biysuyans who wanted to return to the State. These Biysuyans were settled in the Chulman and included in the caste of the kara-chirmyshes.

The popularity of Akhad, nicknamed Moskha in honour of this victory, grew, and it frightened Adam. Casting on the Emir the fault for the death of Azgar, he, together with Dugar, went against the Bolgar. Akhad opted to flee to the Kan, where sat the grandson of Myshdauly, also Myshdauly.

The Bashtu Bek Syb-Bulat who restarted paying the Djir Tribute and opened the roads after the Akhad’s campaign, wanted now to help the Emir to return the throne in exchange for the promise of ending the “rostovcschina” (“usury” in Russian – Translator’s Note). But the Emir Balus with the Mardanians, carrying out the order of the Kan, outpaced the Bek. In the beginning, he defeated the son of Asan from the daughter of Baluk Sharafhan, who had captured the Khin from Dugar, and took that city.

And then, supported by the kursybai, he crossed at night the river Sain-Idel and at the dawn attacked unexpectedly the camp of Syb-Bulat near the Kan. The head of the Urus army Ahmet had barely enough time to flee together with Akhad, and the panicked army raced to the Kan. Balus broke into the city on the shoulders of the running and took it. He wanted to spare Myshdauly, but when Myshdauly obediently came out to him with the words ”Allah akbar”, one Mukhshanian shot him in the back and killed him on the spot. This Mukhshanian was immediately chopped into bits and which were impaled on the stakes of the palisade.

Furious that he did not chance to save the Bek, Emir ordered all captured biys in the Kan to convert to Islam. The circumcision was done immediately, at the market square…

To annex the Kan to the State, in view of the love for freedom and multitude of the population, would be senseless, and Balus, having properly punished the participants of the resistance, and having taken their wives and children as hostages and into captivity, returned to the Bandja.

The circumcised biys, not baring the sneers of the fellow tribesmen, left the Kan and founded upstream of it by the Sain river a new city Kisan… The Kisan soon have grown and subordinated the Kan…

Scared Syb-Bulat portrayed his actions as an attempt “to help” Adam to punish the Kanians, and deprived Amet of his village Amet by the Kara-Idel, on a road from the Djir to the Galidj. The demoted Amet was given a place in a wild province, a possessor of which was appointed Akhad Mosha, who transferred to the Batyshian service. The business-like Akhad immediately chose a place for his residence and built there a fortress. In honour of him it began to be called ” Moskha”. Here grew up his son, Emir Selim with a nickname Kolyn. The Kisanians made him their Bek. All this was not to Adam’s liking, and he waited only for a chance to eradicate the Akhad’s nest in the Rus…

Adam was a real Kan, he did not tolerate any objections. Only the seid Yakub, son of Nugman, lived nicely with the Kan because he knew how to please him.

Taking advantage of Adam’s horse falling, during his trip to the Bolgar, into a cave, which, it turned out, served as a school, the seid attracted the attention of the Kan to the miserable condition of the education in the State. I heard myself from my father that at that time many lost their conscience, and, for example, the inhabitants of the Tukhchi turned the main city mosque into a hayloft, and it was dubbed “Kiben”.

This story of the seid gave creeps even to the usually cold-blooded Adam and forced him to direct a significant part of his means for the rectification of the matter. For this money Yakub built five hundred new mosques and the main mosque of the capital. It had two minarets, and consequently, people gave it the name of the two-headed Elbegen, Baradj. At the main mosque in 1080 the seid founded the ”House of Science” (university) “Mohammed-Bakiriya”, which began to teach not only the Ilahiyat and the basics of the Arabian and Persian knowledge, but also the geography, ethics, the advanced arithmetics/linguistics, history.

Yakub personally rewrote and completed the ”History of Bulgar”, called ”Kazyi kitaby”. My father knew it by heart and was repeatedly retelling it to me. It burned down in the Uchel together with all the library of my father, when the city fortress was burned by the order of the Bek Kantüryay.

All his life the father regretted the loss of the library, which was considered one of the largest in the State. It held the books of Bakir, dastans of Michael and Gabdulla, and many others…

In the 1095 AD was the wedding of the son Shamgun of Adam from the daughter of Dugar, and the daughter of the Khan Ayübai. Ayübai was displeased with Dugar, who proclaimed himself a Kan of all the Kara-Saklanian Türks and Kumans and therefore did not care to come, but Dugar-Kan joyfully set out with an army of 5 thousand daring swordsmen. And it should be said that in the world there were no people who loved the battering more than Kypchaks. At this time the Khan of the Kara-Oimeks Sham or Sam attacked the Bulyar.

The Kan, not distinguished with military talent, was confused at the arrival of the 100 thousand Oimeks in front of the walls of the capital. The Bulyar then did not have a third wall, and it could provide only 5 thousand militiamen. The situation was saved by Shamgun, who was the Ulugbek of the Bolgar. At the dawn, on Friday, he came to the capital with the Bolgarian kazanchis and from the run attacked the camp of the Oimeks.

Many Kipchaks fled in a panic, but the Khan Sham managed to stop them and to lead into the fight. The kazanchis had it rather tough, for though they highly surpassed Kypchaks in the armaments and the military art, there were too many nomads. At that time came Dugar-Kan and began to hinder the Oimeks with the attacks from the rear. When Sham was forced to deploy a part of his troops against the Kumans, following a crushing blow from the third side, this time by the kursybai and Tamtais.

The larger part of the Oimeks began to flee, but Sham in the head of the 20 thousand of the best troops remained in the place, surrounded with the arbas (wagons – Translator’s Note). The kursybai, which had the same medium arms, could not take it, and only the iron-clad kazanchis, with the help of the Bulyar infantry militiamen who came out from the city, managed to cut through the vehicles and a crowd of the sturdy Kypchaks, and to fatally wound the Khan. ”You, a boy, how dare you to defeat me, the great warrior?”, shouted dying Sham, choking with blood, to the approaching Shamgun. Customarily, Shamgun took the name of the famous enemy defeated by him. The running were killed all the way to Djaik…

And the Oimeks brought with them a few tribes with wives, children and belongings, telling them that the gained lands will be given to them. Men were wiped out by the raging warriors, and their wives, children and property fell prey to the Bulgars and Kumans. Especially many of women and children took the Tamtais, that’s why the language of the Bulgars of this province changed somewhat. And even in their customs and appearance emerged the Oymekian features of their Kypchak wives and the children adopted into the families.

A lot of goodies were also taken, for the Oimeks during the flight left in the space from the capital to the Djaik not less than 30 thousand of the wagons and yurts with the carpets, clothes, utensils and weapons. Among the rest, in the Khan’s arba was taken a surprisingly beautiful set of the vessels for the preparation of miraculous and fragrant mixes. The Kan took these vessels for himself, and they were called “sam-abar”.

Was made a magnificent wedding, after which Dugar went to the campaign against the Bashtu, and was killed there because of the betrayal by his Kumans, who colluded to switch to the side of Aübay, the son of Asan.

In the winter of the next, 1096 AD, chance came to Adam to expel the clan of Akhad from the Rus: there began a war of Alikay, the Bek of the Karadjar, with the other Urus Beks.

Securing the support of the Kan, he took the Kisan and went further. Kolyn fled to the Moskha, and the armies of Alikay and Shamgun closed in near the Kan. The Bek Kinzyaslap of the Kan, the son of the Bashtu Bek Bulymer with a nickname Altyn-Kalgan, tried to urge his people to resist, but those, as soon as they saw “chalmas” (turbans – Translator’s Note), i.e. the images of Baradj on the banners of the kursybai, chose to open the gate.

Kinzyaslap came out from the palace with a sword, but, hearing the laughter of the iron chain mill clad kazanchis, surrendered to Shamgun. The Emir gave the Bek to Alikay with a condition that he would spare the life of the captured, who became blind in his youth from an illness. But Alikay ordered to execute him immediately. The unfortunate, who possessed a mighty power, broke off from the hands of the executioners, and threw himself into the Sain-Idel, but, not seeing anything, came back to the same bank, was seized again and ruthlessly killed… This strongly riled Shamgun.

Then they came to the Balyn, defended by the Emir Kolyn. The son of Akhad, who got caught in the trap, chose to surrender to Shamgun, who after the capture of the Kan-Sain was also called Sham-Sain. After that there was a dispute who should posess the city. As nobody would concede, the Emir ordered to conflagrate it. The Balyn burned down with the cries of Bonyak who was expecting the spoils. The upset Khan hired by Alikay, left the allies and went to his headquarters at the Audan Aktash.

Then the Djir, to which he promised a mercy, surrendered to Shamgun. However, contrary to the instructions of the Emir, Alikay as a last burlak (barge hauler – Translator’s Note), broke into the city and plundered it to a last thread. It overflowed the Shamgun’s cap of the patience, and he, under the intolerable for him screams of the tortured townspeople, left the Bek.

He had started to the Galidj, to burn it down in retaliation for the bandit raids of the Galidjians in the Biysu, but at the Amet he met with the son of Altyn-Kalgan Myshdauly and reconciled with him. Having received a promise to stringently pay the Djir Tribute to the State, and to forbid the Galidjian robberies, Shamgun went together with the Bek to the Djir, to end the ravaging of Alikay. The Karadjars, merely catching sight of the imperial banner-chalmata, fled to the steppe in a panic…

The Emir returned to the Bulgar with huge spoils, passing through the Chirmysh balik of the Mishar Bulgars in the Djunné-Kala at the Tukrantau in the estuary of the Sain, which was erected by the order of the Kan Ibragim by of the one of of the descendants of Barys. After that, the Kan engaged in of the reinforcement of the eastern border of the State, which continued to be harassed by of the Kara-Oimeks.

Between of the Bulyar and the river Baradj-Chishma was built eight earthen ramparts with moats, watchtowers and abattises. They were populated by the Baytübans and impoverished Tamtaians, re-listed to the category of ak-chirmyshes and relieved from the taxes for the purpose of carrying the sentry service and repair work. The fortifications were beginning to be built also in the south of the Suvar province, for the Kumans of Aübay concluded a union with Rus against Bonyak and Sharafkhan began threatening the situation in the State. The staffs of the banners of his horde were capped with a half-moon, which especially irked the Kan, for the half-moon and the axe were the symbols of the Khans’s line for the Bulgars.

The Rus, encouraged by the union, stopped paying the “rostovschina”, closed the roads, and the Kisanian Bek even dared to break into the Martüba and plunder the Misharian Ars…

Adam was all upset and sent Shamgun to rectify the matter. In the winter the Emir with the kursybai invaded the Kisan and defeated the local army with active support of the injured Ars. When he came again the next year, the Kisan Bek sued for peace and paid him a huge tribute.

The Emir knew what to act against the Djir through the Deber is inconvenient. Therefore he ordered, right after the Kisanian invasion, to build for this purpose a new city at the Arsu river. In 1103 the city has been built in the presence of the Emir, and named Uchel (“Three Cities”), as it consisted of the three parts. Two of them were on the mountain Bogyltau and were called Ügary Kerman and Kalgan, and the third one was located down the mountain near the lake Akbi-kül and consequently was called Akbikül. Kalgan was connected with Akbikül, but was separated from the Ügary Kerman by the Sain moat and by a part of the mountain without any buildings.

The name Ügary Kerman was because it was located on the highest point of the mountain that dropped abruptly to the Arsu. The separation came about because in the big haste Ügary Kerman could not be extended to the Sain moat, and the money difficulties that arose. This space began to be used as a place for the parking of the Muslim merchant caravans and as a market square. The Ars coming for the trade were placed in the Bish Balta, whose honey was considered the tastiest in the State, and the Uruses stayed behind the channel Bulak, which connected the Kaban lake with the Arsu.

The first viceroy of the city, Subash, with his kursybai, endured here for a few years, while the Three-Year War with Rus was going on. He collected a tribute from the Undj province, crushing a few of the Balynian detachments, and the next winter attacked with Shamgun the Balyn. The siege was raised only after Altyn-Kalgaн agreed to restart the payment of the Djir Tribute…

Subash left Uchel with great pleasure, and there was appointed Selim, who attained the pronouncement of the Uchel as the capital of the Martüba. The Debers took it with a big pleasure, as they hoped to ease the abuses of the officials…

Kolyn quickly understood the futility of collecting the tribute, from the Ars and the living among them on the Mountainside Serbiyans, with a force of only 30 djuras and 200 ak-chirmyshes. Therefore he attained a transfer into ak-chirmyshes of two Seber tribes living among the Ars, the Kukdjaks and Batliks. They were excellent soldiers, as all Bashkorts: Esegs, Modjars, Sebers…

However, Kolyn also was the Ulugbek not for long here.

Initially Ayübai was breaking through to the Suvar il along the edges of the Mardan, and then started raiding the Bukhara road through the Saksin. The Khan Sharafhan, expelled by Ayübai from the Shir, on his own occupied the Khin. The roads to the Saksin and Khoresm became unsafe, which could not be tolerated.

Subash barely secured the situation. Having lost a third of the kursybai, he succeeded in saving the Hins from the demise, and transferred Türkmens to the Mardanian Burtas district, and the Badjanaks to the Badjanak district. A part of the Badjanak district, settled with Badjanaks, was, at the request of the resettlers, separated into a new district Kinel…

The inability of Balus to stop the Kumanian buccaneering made the Kan upset. He ordered Kolyn to take the post of the Mardanian Ulugbek, and Balus to take the post of the governor of the Uchel. It was an unheard-of violation of the rights of the Bellak and the Mardanians obeyed only after Shamgun drew near this il with the armies of the kazanchis and Subash. In two years after that, the cunning and inventive Kolyn managed to lure Ayübai into a trap.

He convinced the Kan of the necessity to arrange a marriage of the senior son Arbat of Shamgun on the daughter of Bonjak, who was subordinated to Ayübai and to invite Ayübai to the wedding. ”Ayübai could not miss the wedding of his grandson and the daughter of his main supporter, Bonyak, for it would be a terrible insult to the customs of the steppe”, explained Selim to the Kan. “Open one road through the urs (border fortifications) to the Bulyar, and close it behind the Khan. He will be trapped, and you could do to him, in the capital, anything you want”.

Kan followed the advice of Kolyn, surprised by his wisdom and perfidy. Ayübai was allowed to pass through the portals of the earthen ramparts, together with 11 thousand of his best soldiers, so that he noticed nothing. Behind him these passes in all eight earthen ramparts were immediately tightly closed. Once in the Bulyar, one thousand of Ayübai soldiers stayed in the Hinuba, which was then protected only by an earthen rampart and had not too many buildings.

Another thousand was with the Khan in another part of the city, Men Bulyar, where the wedding was taking place. Ayübai did not want to celebrate in the citadel, Martuan or Bulüm Kerman, seeing in it a mousetrap. The wedding was feasted in the best caravanserai in the Menbulyar, the ”Dyau Shir” (“Great Shir”). In front of the caravanserai was a huge market square. The Kumans stayed there, and into the ”Dyau Shir” with the Khan went five hundred soldiers.

In a heat of the feast, when the visitors were drunk enough, the wife of Shamgun brought to her father a cup of sudja (“sweet water”, the traditional drink, usually with honey, known from the Herodotian times – Translator’s Note) with the poison. She did not know about it, and Ayübai, not reading anything disturbing in her joyful face, calmly drank it for the young, and in a few instants fell on the carpet.

It was also Kolyn who advised to serve the poison, and when the Kan started objecting, he said: ”If you do not give the Khan sudja to drink, he will give you blood to drink”. When the Khan fell, the Kan’s warriors immediately jumped on the visitors with bared swords and chirkeses. Only Bonyak, who became mute seeing all this, was pulled up by his underarms and taken to a safe place… The sister of Shamgun, who was married to one of the Ayübai’s sons, braced her husband in an embrace and smothered like a baby mouse. Arbat, with a huge club, one by one dispatched nine more sons of the Khan.

All Kumans in the caravanserai, Men Bulyar and Hinuba were killed. Simultaneously, the kazanchis also attacked the others, outside of city, in the aul Karak burglarized by the Kumans. They too were fairly drunk from the plentiful oblations, but instead of the expected gifts suddenly saw in front of them the death in the form of the bakhadirs.

When the kazanchis of the Shamgun drove the Kumans, the kursybai entered into the action. The Kypchaks raced by the old road to the steppe, but in their way rose barricades of the earthen ramparts, moats, and abattises, protected by the Tamtaies and Baytübians pitiless to the bandits. There was a great slaughter of the stunned by the horror Kumans. The inhabitants of the neighbouring auls came out from the houses and beat Kypchaks with what they had on hand. Of the nine thousand of the fleeing only one thousand, led by the eleventh son Manuk of the Khan, broke out to the steppe.

The people joked about this occasion that they lacked the ninth rampart for the Kumans…
Manuk left to the Oimeks and continued to raid the State with them through the Tamta, sometimes crossing also the river Baradj-Chishma. But in the west the tribe of Ayübai was not there any more, and the roads to the Saksin, Bashtu and to the Dima-Tarkhan became secure. Kolyn finished the task, channeling the remains of the restless Kypchaks beyond the Djurash, into the Gurdjian province Khondjak.

There lived the descendants of the Hons who have accepted the language and the faith of the neighbouring Gurdjianian tribes. In memory of this battle, which received the name ” Ayübai Wedding”, Adam ordered to crown the staffs of the Bulgarian battle banners, alongside with the Baradj and the half-moon, also with the sign of Alamir, V…

The Kan thanked the Emir by appointing as the Suvar Ulugbek his son Khisam Anbal, married to the Kafian Saklan girl, and therefore he received the nickname As. Anbal was immediately entangled by the kazanchis, whose clans grew and could not any more be sufficed with the ancestral lands. They were thirsty to receive the igenchis of the other provinces to gorge on them, and for this purpose they wanted to install the obedient to them Emir as a Kan.

Such was Anbal, for whom, during the unfavourable times for his family, the main thing became the aspiration for a life of a continuous pleasure. He, like the Kan Mohammed Mumin, hated the state affairs and was ready to carry out any whim of his favourites, the kazanchis.

When the kazanchis told Kolyn about their desire to make his son their Kan, the Emir did not oppose and decided to become the leader of the plot to secure the position of his house. He conspired with the Mardanians that he would leave them alone, and will also respect their rights, with a condition of their support of the plot. Balus who was toiling in the Uchel, which after the huge Bandja seemed to him a miserable aul, eagerly joined the plot in hope to return to the Mardan.

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