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HomeDatelinesThe most ancient history of Bulgars – 3

The most ancient history of Bulgars – 3

Chapter 20. Bulgar under rule of Gabdulla Chelbir(1178 – 1225)

Gabdulla, raised to the throne by Djalmati, Kurnay, Martüba Ulugbek Dair and the son of As-Tarkhan, saw in Chishma the murderer of his father, and soon fell upon Shir with the forces of 4 thousand Bulgarian and Suvarian kazanchis. But it was hard for the heavily armed ulans to chase in the steppe after the light Kumans, and in about two years they swayed the Kan to relieve them of the external wars for a redemption. On these means Gabdulla restored the kursybai and charged with it the son of Kurnay, Bek Guza. The kursybays ruined the Kumanian stans on the Shir and delivered the head of Chishma to the Kan. Chelbir ordered to throw it in a pit next to the tomb of his father. Guza did not fall behind the Kan in the severity, and also piled a hill of the Kumans’ heads in the place of the Mukhsha, ruined by them…

In the 1181 AD, however, the sight of the violent Kan left the Saklan for a while. This year grew the impertinence of the Galidjians, who, feigning to be the Balynian fishermen, proceeded by the helpless Uchel and the sleeping Bolgar to the Nukrat-Idel and plundered the castle “Alamir-Sultan”of the Kan Ibragim. From the castle survived only the Alabuga tower. The son of Akbalyk, Masgut, appointed as the Tamta Tarkhan, pursued the robbers and annihilated them all near his father’s city Kargatun on the Chulman. But the soul of the Kan was inflamed and burned with hatred to the Balynians who let the robbers into the limits of the State.

In the winter of the next year Guza burned the vicinities of the Kan and Kul Asma, one year later, the Radjil. A scared Syb-Bulat persuaded all Urus Beks to help him, and in the summer invaded the State.

The cousins of Urman Bat-Aslap and Khalik, and also the Kan Bek Ryshtauly made a distracting strike on the Deber and forced Gabdulla to throw to the aid of the city Guza and Torekul, the son of As-Tarkhan. Khondjak, who gave his five-year daughter Sauliya for the ten-year old Kan’s brother Mir-Gazi, hastened there too. Khondjak was forced to join the State by the Uruses, who were pushing him in the steppes after of route of Bashkort…

The daughter of Bashkort, the mother of Gabdulla Kungur, ransomed her father from the Bashtu Bek, but the Khan remained to live in the Saklan…

While Guza fought alone near the Deber, the cunning Syb-Bulat with 45 thousand infantry sneaked by the Kara-Idel and Agidel to the mouth of the Dyau-Shir and landed west of the Tukhcha. He was with the Karadjar Bek Bulymer, Burisala Bek Kinzyaslap, Shamlyn Bek Myshdauly, Urman and four more Ulchian Beks. Syb-Bulat also took with him Azan Bek, my father, who he wished to install on the Kan’s throne. But, remembering the flight of Otyak from Khan-Türyay at the Bolgar, Syb-Bulat ordered my father to remain at the landing site of under a guard of 5 thousand soldiers. With the others he, after an unsuccessful attempt to take the Tukhcha, went to the Bulyar…

The Kan was not in the capital, for he was ousted from it by a rebellion of Mamli-Omar or Mamil. Mamil was the senior son of Hyzyr-Hudja, and after the death of Kul-Daud was appointed as a seid of the capital. However Chelbir did not get along with him, and in the 1179 he appointed the as the seid Mirhudja, the son of Kul-Daud. Mirhudja, fervently devoted to the spread of Islam, all his life preached in the remote corners of the State, until, at last, he has not settled in the mouth of the Tamta or Djalmat-Zay.

And the Djalmatians or Tintyaus were one of the mighty branches of the Saban people. A part of the Djalmatians separated from the other relatives and, together with the tribes of Kharka and Kangly, formed the Badjanak people, so the Tintyau Bulgars looked at the Badjanak Bulgars of the Mardan as at their own, and constantly kept kinship with them.

The Tintyau Djalmatians were also called Bish-Kalpak, which meant ”five men” for they had the kalpak headdress as an sign of a manhood. Yakub wrote that once Khazarian Türkmens wiped out their tribe, and only five men remained of it. They came to Djalmat-Zay and here restored their people. And by the names of husbands were also called their main clans: Ardim, Dim, Guzi, Min or Mun, and Tabyn. And from the other Sabanian tribes Yakub mentions the Djuluts with two main clans of the Baryndjars and Arbugains…

And though Tintyaus were converted into Islam by Michael himself, they still strongly held the heathen errors among them. Thus, during the Sabantuy between the local Bulgars the women were coming out to fight the men. Mirhudja tried forbidding it, and once a crowd of the Tintyaus almost ripped him apart because he hindered a fight of one lad with the daughter of the Tabyns’ Biy Ümart-Tabyn. The Biy barely rescued the mullah, and, by the will of the Allah, the same girl became his wife and in the 1172 gave birth to his son Mohammed-Gali. During the resettlement of the family to the Bulyar she caught a cold and soon died… The Bulyarians nicknamed the new seid Nakkar, for his sonorous and beautiful calls to the pray… Mamil left to the Tatyak and there headed the “El-Khum”.

The position of the people by then became completely sad. The subashis, the small owners, the ak-chirmyshes and kara-chirmyshes were exhausted by the additional taxes and the duties introduced by the Kan in connection with the discontinuance of the receiving the Djir Tribute, and the construction of the fortifications in the Baradj-Chishma, Deber and other places, and also in view of the necessity to replace the expenses for the continuous wars.

The trouble was worsened with a poor harvest, which caused the strongest famine. In the brotherhood the lead was seized by the most aggressive group named “Amin”, whose banner symbol became the Alp Simbir-Karga. It opposed the excessive taxes and duties, and for their stability, for the elimination of the allodial lands, for the transfer of the ulans into the category of ak-chirmyshes and kursybays, and the transfer of the kurmyshes and kara-chirmyshes in the category of ak-chirmyshes and subashes under the condition of their acceptance of the Islam.

The propagator of the Aminian ideas, began to be called “Rooks”, became the house of sciences “Mohammed-Bakir”. Here under their influence fell two shakirds, Mohammed-Gali and Emir Mir-Gazi. And they were of the same age, and there became friends. Ah, how I in my time dreamed about studying at the university, but my father forbade it with the words: “If you happen to be within the walls of this institution, you could never become a good ruler”.

The Aminians wanted to carry out their plans by overthrowing the Kan and raising to the throne a their follower. Such, in their opinion, was Chalmati. The conspirators were also helped that the kursybays expressed discontent with the low salary and that sometimes they received even less than that.

The disturbed Kan declared the assembly in the winter of the Baytüba’s ak-chirmysh militia. But when the warriors gathered at the capital, Mamil intised aroused them for a rebellion. One of the militiamen immediately raised a gold flag with an image of a rook, handed to him by the mullah. It served as a signal to the beginning of the rebellion…

The rebel crowds rushed to the zindan “Shaitan Bugaz” and released a 300 Kolyns, who were still alive. After that the beggars began plundering and setting fires to the houses of the bilemchis and noble people. The Kan, learning about it, fled from the Bulyar to the Bolgar. It is said that when Chelbir passed by a seid who stepped out to the street he asked him: “Are not you going to leave the city together with me?” The nakkar responded: “Khans can flee and come back, but the ulemas should always be with the people”…

The rebels seized the capital and immediately, in the Suvar Yorty building, raised Chalmati for the reign, and formed a 10-thousand strong militia. Mamil became the Visir, and Mirhudja remained the seid, for he was liked by the people for his honesty and fairness…

The Kan summoned Turgen, but the siege of the capital by the Tubdjaks in the presence of Chelbir was not successful. Mer-Chura, during one of the attacks, pierced the Tarkhan with an iron arrow, and the Oimeks flinched. The Kan, leaving the son of the diseased Khan, Mergen, near the city, returned to the Bolgar and summoned Guza, the son of As-Tarkhan, Khondjak and Samar-bi. Samar-bi refused to come. Guza arrived, but straightforwardly told Chelbir that he will not storm the capital because of unreliability of the impoverished kursybays.

When Gabdulla hollered at him, Guza proudly noted that he is of the same descent from Bat-Boyan as the Kan, and that if Chelbir does not double the salary of kursybays, he would leave to the Kermek. The Kan thought over, lowered the sword and ordered to declare an increase in the salary of the kursybays. ”Now you will go on Bulyar?”, asked Chelbir the sardar. ”Only if you will not execute even a single rebel”, answered Guza. The Kan came to a full fury, but with all the temper coming from the hot heart he inherited from his father, he had a rather cool mind, and therefore he also sensibly abstained this time from punishing the bakhadir, and with a poorly hidden irritation he promised to be merciful.

But at that moment, when the kursybai was ready to charge to the capital, came a message about the intrusion of Syb-Bulat, and Гузу was turned to the Deber. The Kan did not presume in the Ulchians, whom he despised, the ability for a military cunning, and consequently, when Syb-Bulat landed in the mouth of the Dyau-Shir, only moaned from a powerless fury. Only Mergen, appointed a new Tarkhan of the Tubdjak, roamed near the Bulyar, but with him there was little hope. At least it was good enough that Akhtyam, the son of the Kashan Ulugbek Alabuga, who was the commander of the Tukhcha, turned out to be a worthy descendant of his ancestor Kermek, аnd he beat off the attack of Syb-Bulat and it delayed the Uruses…

When the Balynian drew close to the Bulyar, at the ravine As-Elga he met Mergen and on behalf of Azan entered into negotiations with him. The Tarkhan, not knowing who will end up with the power, made a concession to the Uruses in the vicinity of the capital, though he himself remained nearby.

The Balynians besieged the city for two weeks, but the militiamen strongly held on. Once at a dawn Mamil accented the Suleiman high minaret of the Baradj mosque to call the devout to the morning prayer. Suddenly he saw that the Uruses, exhausted by a long and ceaseless siege, are soundly asleep. Then the Bulyarians, instead of the accustomed call, heard from the mullah an appeal to attack the enemy camp.

Chalmati, without a delay, opened the Red and the Bull gates and attacked the stans of the enemies. He managed to chop down the Shamlyns’ and Kan’s camps, but Kinzyaslap managed to raise his troops and strike Chalmati in the side with a heavy lance. The Emir fell and soon died, and the Bulyarians hasty retreated behind the walls. Kinzyaslap rushed after them and was also striken by the arrow of Mer-Chura, and the Uruses were beaten off.

Mergen, taking advantage of the disarray, attacked the untouched camps of the Ulchians, and began retreating to the Bolgar. Guza was coming towards him, after defeating the Kisans and having charged the Arbugains and Saksins, who just caught up with him, with squaring away the remnants.

Both Kisan Beks were killed, and Ryshtauly drowned during a flight in the Deber. Of the 15 thousand Urus horsemen only 5 thousand avoided the destruction.

Syb-Bulat, however, was held up at the capital, in the negotiations with Mamil. Mirhudja with his ten years’ old son Mohammed-Gali rode for the meeting with the Balynian. The Mamil mutiny intoxicated young Gali and for a time made him an adherent of violent actions in establishing the Kaganate of Goodness and Fairness dear to his heart. Later Gali told to my father that they went to the camp of the Uruses without any guard. There he saw a dying Kinzyaslap. The Bek, seeing the boy, smiled and ordered to present him with his sword.

The negotiations ended with a mutual consent: the rebels agreed to raise Azan to the throne, and Syb-Bulat agreed to remove his troops from the capital. Also started an exchange of the captured, which was interrupted by a thunderous word about approaching of Guza. Smelling a rat, Urman with the other Kisan’s and Kan’s Beks and boyars fled to the mouth of the Dyau-Shir on the horses seized from the Oimeks. Guza, who received an order from the Kan to take first of all the capital, did not want to interfere with the flight, and sent Khondjak to intercept them just for show.

The Kypchaks, as expected Guza, were crumpled by Urman, but Syb-Bulat with the other Uruses, barely crossed the Cheremshan, did not follow the Kisans, to the great disappointment of the sardar. Bewildered, he ordered to surround himself with wooden shields and wagons, at a place between a small river Kuy-Elga and the As-Elga ravine. But it was impossible to stay in this fortification for many soldiers for a long time, and therefore Syb-Bulat ordered his troops to break through a passage.

The Uruses, desperate in their attempts to save their lives with a slightest chance for a hope, went forward as a huge marching crowd. At that moment came one thousand of the kazanchis, headed by the Bolgar Ulugbek Lachyn Khisami. Taking for the shyness the unwillingness of the sardar to close the way to the Ulchians, they began to tease him loudly. The sardar, not taking it easily, unfolded his army for the battle blocking the way to the Agidel. In the front ended up the Kypchaks of Mergen and Khondjak, behind them were the bakhadirs of Guza, and behind them were the kazanchis.

Started an unprecedented in its bitterness battle, which lasted for three days. In the first day fought mainly the Kumans, and the kursybays corrected their situation only occasionally. In the second day a bit tired Kypchaks fought lethargically, and the kursybays had to use all their might to repulse the breaks of the enemy. In the third day, alongside with the infantrymen, in the action entered the small Urus calvary, headed by Bulymer and Syb-Bulat. Bulymer cut through a ring of the bakhadirs and was already breaking through the lines of the kazanchis, who lost 500 persons, when he saw that Syb-Bulat was stuck in the fight with the kursybays, and threw himself to the aid.

We immediately closed the lines and again drove the Uruses into their camp. In this fight the selfless Bulymer was felled from the horse and lost an arm with which he covered from a strike, and which the bakhadirs immediately impaled on the end of the seized Urus’ banner. The Kaubuyian Bek Elaur, who served as a koshchi (falconeer) of the Bulymer father, managed to put him on his horse and save, but he himself was taken a prisoner. After that the Ulchians, who lost 20 thousand people, did not make any more attempts to break out and stayed besieged..

Meanwhile in the mouth of the Dyau-Shir ensued the fight, after the Tintyauses of Masgut, the son of Akbalyk, came there by overland, and under the guidance of Shirdan by water came the ships of the Kan’s fleet. Here again the Uruses fenced off themselves and the ships with wooden shields and wagons against the land side. Tintyauses, however, in one place managed to break through the fortifications, but the Urman’s Kisans came in time and drove them away.

The less numerous Shirdan’s salchis succeded in sinking few Urus ships and retreated only after they achieved the main object of the attack, freeing Azan Bek. So said Shirdan, but my father told me that the ours were beaten off, and he himself chased after them, and reached them when already being in the water up to his belt. Urman demanded from the commander Alasha of Syb-Bulat an immediate departure, but Alasha refused, stating that for him it is better to perish here, than to come back home without his Bek…

With the approach of the night, the Uruses in the camp began to pray before the inevitable death. However, Bek Elaur, taken prisoner by Djurgi, managed to talk Lachyn to help the trapped Beks. ” I know, you want to become the Dima-Tarkhan Bek, he told him. “Then rescue the strongest Urus Beks, and they will help you to achieve it”.

Elaur was released and prowled to the Beks with the Bulgarian armor and one hundred horses. The Beks and their close boyars, without delay, changed the clothes and, stealthily from the other soldiers, slipped to the Alasha camp. At the very bank they came across of the Tintyau’s patrol and barely escaped. At that, Elaur again gave Bulymer, who has lost his racer, his horse, but he himself was taken a prisoner again…

Syb-Bulat, reaching the ships, immediately sailed with 5 thousand of the surviving Uruses. Near the city Kuman he picked up a few, separated from the Kisan cavalry after its calamity. At that time the Uchelians attacked the Uruses with the boats and captured a few ships.

Beks were helped that before their escape Guza, under an order of the Kan, ceded his positions to Khondjak and raced to the Bulyar. The Kumans and Oimeks, tired from the fights, fell asleep and failed to stop the Beks. Then, in front of the Kan, Khondjak blamed Mergen, who stood next to him, and Mergen blamed the Khan.

Guza, approaching the capital at daybreak, offered a surrender to the rebels, with a condition of saving their lifes. The rebels, exhausted by a long siege, opened him the gate. When the escape of the Beks was discovered, Guza and Khondjak went in pursuit, but only shot at Chuyl the Uruses from the Syb-Bulat’s ship which trailed behind. Khondjak also wanted to finish off Elaur, but Guza did not let him, and presented him to the Kan. Chelbir, who rode into the Bulyar at a dawn, was in a fine mood and forgave the Kaubuyan Bek.

Samar-bi invited Elaur and, after marring him, transferred to him, with the sanction of the Mardanian biys-aksakals, the post of the Bellak Ulugbek…

With the Kan came the “siege masters”, who with the approach of the day fired the sheredjirs at the Balyns’ camp, the jars with a combustible mixture. When a few dozens of the Uruses, pelted with the mixture, began to burn alive, thousands of other besieged run out in horror. The Oimeks started shooting them down with laughter, but Lachyn cried for Chelbir to stop the murder. 7 thousand Uruses were taken alive. Of the 60 thousand army, back to the Rus came only 10 thousand Ulchians…

On demand of Guza , who had sworn on the Koran that he would save the lives of the surrendered rebels, the Kan was compelled to withdraw his sword from their heads. Mamil with his closest accomplices was exiled in chains to the Kargatun, Nakkar, also in chains, was exiled to the Bolgar, where he became a muedzin (muezzin – Translator’s Note) of the Hasan mosque. Soon, ascending in heavy shackles up the minaret, he fell and died.

Mer-Chura with his biys accepted Islam, he began to be called Üsuf-Aly, and was returned back. The favor of the Kan made him fight robbery in the province even more zealously. He exterminated two Galidjian contingents and raided the river Tup, where he burned few fortresses. Chelbir granted him a seal with the image of a bow and arrow, Ψ, in memory of his marksmen’s shot at Kinzyaslap. And on the seals of the other provinces there were such images:

On the seal of the new Bolgar – Bars (Panther)  

On the seal of the old Bulyar – Baradj  

On the seal of the new Bulyar –  

On the seal of the Mardan-Bellak

On the seal of the Suvar 

On the seal of the Saksin

On seal of the Tamta – Berkut (Golden eagle – Translator’s Note)

On the seal of the Tubdjak

On the seal of the Ur – Owl

On the seal of the Baygul – Big Fish

On the seal of the Martüba

On the seal of the Kashan

And on the seal of the clan Dulo was the image of the Ax and Bow, that is Baltavar

On the seal of the ”El-Khum”

In addition to that, the Biys, Beks and Emirs also had their own tamgas…

Chelbir also did not forget the services of the Bolgar, by his decree its name was returned to the city, the name, however, only in the Kan’s letters was not mentioned. Bulyar again began to be called by its name, however many Bulyarians had time to get used to the second name of capital and continued to call themselves Bolgarians, and call the capital Bolgar. In 1193 the Kan gave Tamta a new name, Bashkort, in honour of his favourite grandfather, which was an unprecedented favour, for the heroism of the Tamtais in the wars with Syb-Bulat and the Galidjians. The Tamtа Bulgars, who were divided into a multitude of clans, accepted the new name, for “Tamtа” was a name of only a part of the local Bulgarian clans, and others were dissatisfied with it.

Soon Syb-Bulat, who has evaded the death, hastened to confess to the Kan, opened the roads, renewed the payment of the Djir Tribute, and promised not to build any fortifications on the Bulgarian border. Gabdulla was very pleased with humility of the Bek and sent back his envoy with a thousand of the captured Uruses that at the division of the spoils went to Chelbir. He also promised to the Balynian that in the years he would render the military services to the State, the Djir Tribute will not be collected. The Balynian fishermen were allowed to fish in the Idel with a condition that they would transfer a fifth of the salted fish to the treasury.

The Kan expected the same apologies also from the Bashtu Bek, whose son Bulymer participated in the attack of Syb-Bulat. However the apologies did not follow, and Gabdulla in anger ordered Tarkhan Tore-kul to punish the audacious Bek. The Tarkhan, together with the Kan’s master Nasyr Shirvani and his sheredjirs in the winter set off to the headquarters of the allied Khondjak and, together with the Khan, attacked the boundaries of the Bashtu.

However in a deciding battle Khondjak suddenly fled, and the Tarkhan, not wishing to extract a victory for the Kumans without their participation, followed him. Nasyr wanted to remain to burn the vessels, but the Tarkhan, afraid to return without him, forcibly whirled the master away. Bulyak, a pupil of Nasyr, remained and had time to burn the vessels, but was taken prisoner. My father, through Syb-Bulat, succeeded to ransom him, and from that time Bulyak always followed him.

From Bulyak, I learned to build and apply the siege machines. Bulyak also run a channel with a bed of logs in the Djilan bog to connect the waters of the Kaban with Arsu, and it began to be called with his name. Though, in a due course the “Bulyak” transformed into “Bulak“ and it began to be thought that the distorted name was the initial name.

The next year the Kan ordered to punish Urman, who also did not wish to apologize. This time to the campaign went Tatrа, the son of Akbalyk, nicknamed so by his Eneys in honor of the bakhadir Tat-Yran. But when Tatrа arrived on the Shir to join with Khondjak, he received from the latter a panicky news about an intrusion of the Karadjar Bek Ugyr into the Saklan. Tatrа immediately went to the aid of the Khan, and in a decisive fight attracted to his side the Kaubuys, who were the best part of the Urus army.

After that, the Kumans without an effort exhausted and tied the Karadjar infantrymen, who remained without the Kaubuyian cavalry. Of course, as spoils Tatrа demanded delivery of the captured Ugyr. Khondjak promised that, but suggested to first raid the Bashtu. Tatrа, with Nasyr with him, but without the sheredjirs this time, agreed, in order to humiliate the unlucky son of As-Tarkhan and the Mardanians who avoided to participate in the campaign… While the Kumans plundered the Ulchian auls, we methodically broke the wall of a big Ufa fortress and took it with all its inhabitants…

The only thing that Tatrа could not accomplish was to bring Ugyr, who was secretly helped to flee by the Khan. As was rumoured, he did it because the Bek was his son-in-law and promised a large ransom…

Kan was angry that Tatrа on his own changed the direction of the strike, but softened after learning of the victory, and gave his soldiers a break in duties. A few Ufa merchants, seized by him, asked a permission to remain in the State, and were allowed to settle in the Bulgar. The pleased Masgut founded a new encampment by the Agidel and called it “Ufa”, in memory of the victory of his brother.

The next year Gabdulla personally invaded the Kisan, together with Syb-Bulat, who readily agreed to help the Kan. Urman in a horror fled to the forest, and the Kan besieged the Kisan. Seeing, that the situation is bad, the boyars lead Khalib and Altynbek onto the wall and swore to kill them in case of a Bulgarian attack. In the Chelbir’s soul a second time in his life after the death of his father flicked a pity for the relatives, and, growling with a powerless fury, he returned home. However, the scared Urman immediately sent envoys with apologies, gifts and 12 boyars, the initiators of the unfriendly attitude to the State. The Kan chained them, but then, thawing his heart, allowed them to reside in the houses and gradually released them in exchange for their younger relatives…

In addition to that the Balynian fleet helped the Kan to suppress a mutiny of the Undjay Ars, who had taken to protest against the tribute and who built, together with the run-away Ulchians who adjoined them, a fortress Kildysh near a big bay of the Kara-Idel. The Uruses blocked the rebels from the Kara-Idel side, and the Mishars of the aul Lachyk-Uba did it from the land side, and soon finished off with the rebellion, dispersing downwind the ashes of Kildysh…

The occupation with these affairs did not distract the Kan from setting the destiny of Lachyn. Through the relatives of his wife in the Djalda and Ass he obtain the appointment of Khisami as Dima-Tarkhan Bek, and soon, when a chance came, he obtain the appointment for him as the Emir of the Gurdja. Elaur went to raise Lachyn to the Gurdjian throne…

At the request of the Emir, the Kan allowed to settle in the Bandja, Bolgar, Bulyar and Saksin a few dozens of the Gurdjian merchant and artisan families, mostly Ariyaks, who have not been satisfied with their position in the native land…

Chelbir also favored my father and after the departure of Lachyn he appointed him as the Bolgar Ulugbek. But then, seeing that Azan was an excellent administrator, he transferred him to the distressed Uchel.

Being at the top of his might, Chelbir did not pay a due attention to the shape of the people. Meanwhile, the doubling of the tax which he left in force, on the proprietors, subashes, kara-chirmysh heathens, and also on the ak-chirmyshes, who had to pay it in lieu of their military service, was a heavy burden for the people. Their discontent pushed the Amines to a new plot, which was lead by the mullah Gali.

Being initially, after the graduation of the medresé, a preacher, Mohammed-Gali received a large popularity with the people, and became the imam-khatib of the Hasan mosque in the Bolgar. From here in all the country he stretched the web of the plot, which was called the “Rook’s” after the image on the Amines’ banner. The purpose of the brothers-“rooks” was the installment as the Kan of Mir-Gazi, who shared their views and who was, unlike Chelbir, gentle and sensitive to injustice.

The Amines wanted to start the revolt in the 1193 AD. A signal to it was to be the calls for the morning prayer. In the Bolgar the people were to be aroused by Kylych voice of Gali himself, and in the capital by the voice of his assistant mullah Kylych. Fortunately for the Kan, Kylych betrayed and told him about the upcoming revolt. Hastily summoned, as if for a campaign, Mergen and the kazanchis seized 500 of the main participants of the plot who were not expecting treachery, together with Gali. All 500 were sentenced to severe execution.

Meanwhile 12 thousand Galidjians attacked the Bulgarian Tunay. Having stayed at the Kolym in vain, they went to the Kargadan and there besieged the old Alay-Bat. The bandits did not notice, however, that Üsuf-Aley has crept behind them and came in time to tell the father and Masgut about the attack. Alay-Bat was not baffled and offered to the Galidjians a ransom from city… The hungry robbers readily agreed to accept fish, counting on taking the city with a full stomach. But the fish was poisoned, and, having eaten it, 120 leaders of the attack conked out on the spot.

The survivors started electing the new ones and wrestle among themselves. Then, in the heat of this fight, Mer-Chura with Masgut struck them from the rear, and Alay-Bat from the city. Not more than a hundred of the Galidjians could escape back home, and the others were clobbered dead or captured. Three thousand of the captured were equally divided between the Tarkhans, and then Mer-Chura personally went to the capital on the Shirdan’s ship, with his share of the spoils. In the Bulyar the Tarkhan learned about the events and decided to protect Gali in memory of his kind father.

”Ah, the Great Kan!”, he addressed Chelbir. “I, by the will of Allah, won over the Galidjians and took prisoner one thousand of them. Take 500 of them for the lives of the “Rooks”. Gabdulla, who was valuing only the military valor, softened a little at the news about the victory. But, tenaciously not wishing to spare the rebels, he noted to Üsuf-Aley:

– Your 500 captured is my share, and I shall not give it for the lives of the damned “Rooks”!

– Then take for them my 500!”, immediately responded the Tarkhan.

TheKan, by his weakness to the people who strengthened the power of the State, could not refuse this time. The apprehended Aminians and the captured were taken to the field in front of the capital and the Kan announced to them:

– “All of you made crimes punished by death, and I sentenced you to death. But the noble Tarkhan asked for you and convinced to pardon you. Do you agree to accept my pardon?”

– “Yes, master! exclaimed Galidjians with one voice.”

– “And you?” Khan asked the “Rooks”.

– “To accept your favour means to agree with you and to justify you, and recognize ourselves as guilty. We disagree with you, we believe we are right, and consequently, we reject your pardon”, answered Gali for all brothers.

– “I sentenced your “Rookie” crowd to a terrible execution”, in a fury said Gabdulla. “And I cannot break my own decree about the execution of the 500 people. Therefore let 500 robbers die for you. Allah more likely will accept the repented than the persisting.”

Before the eyes of the shocked brothers the black-axers cold-bloodedly executed the ill-fated Galidjians. After that the “Rooks” were exhibited for sale into slavery, and at once turned grey Gali was banished to the Alabuga tower, and there was chained to the wall…

The father-in-law of the mullah, the Bulgarian merchant Dayr, and also the Bashkorts of Masgut, and Elaur bought out many of the unfortunates and took them away to their places. Mir-Gazi was transferred from the Bolgar to the Kashan, and in his place was again raised my father, who also kept his post of the Uchel Ulugbek…

However, that among the “Rooks” were found a few bailiffs and even suvarbashis seriously disturbed the Kan, and he immediately removed the increased taxes from the merchants and subashes of the Echke Bulgar ils. If he did not do it, the people could start to be disobedient in this lean year even without the sermons of the brothers.

The Galidj, learning about the route of its best forces, was horrified and immediately sent envoys to the Kan. In response to the opening of the Artan road and the Galidj for a duty-free trade, they humbly asked the Kan to release the captured for a ransom.

The Kan, in need of good and loyal soldiers, exchanged one thousand of his captured for two thousand Artanians seized by the Galidjians, and 130 ships with bear and other furs, Ajdakha fangs, amber, Frangish tableware, and other goods. And the size of the redemption tribute and its components were established by Sadyk, a Galidian, who switched to the Chelbir service with 500 other captured Kanians. He was telling that is a grandson of the offended by the Galidjian boyars merchant Chapkyn and the son of Vasyl, who participated in the attack on the Alamir-Sultan.

This Vasyl happened to fall behind his cohorts and, to save his life, told us the place of the robber’s camp, and then he was released to go home and, subsequently, he helped the State with the reports about prepared robberies, in exchange for a sanction to freely trade in the Biysu and Ur. Sadyk himself warned Mer-Chura about the raid, and then provoked a disarray among the Galidjians.

When Sadyk told the Kan about the tribute and what can be extracted from the Galidjians, Gabdulla could not believe and exclaimed: “If the Galidjians pay me it, I shall make you a Biy!” The envoys were impressed by the knowledge of the Kan of the capacities of their city, and paid what was stated by Sadyk. My father said that when the Galidjians were berthing to the Tazik island at the Uchel, where the inspections were usually conducted, and then also the transfer of the goods from the overseas ships to ours, one of the boyar complained: “The Kan undressed us completely, not taking only cockroaches from us. But it seems to me that if he wanted them, he would also find out and their quantity!”

Sadyk received his due, he became a biy and settled on the land which Mer-Chura allocated for him near the Kolyn. He was prohibited from erecting a fortress, and he reinforced for himself one of the baliks of the Kolyn. His estate was enclosed by only a paling, under protection of which the unarmed people of Sadyk had time to hide in a fortress in case of danger…

The ransomed from the captivity Artanians were called Shambuts. They were tall and handsome and were famed for their extraordinary endurance. Of the clothing, they constantly wore only trousers, and especially well shot and fought with an axe. The Kan settled the Shambuts on the rivers Chally, Dyau-Shir, and near the caravanserai Sarman, erected on the road to the Tubdjak out of the walls of the Urusian camp. At that time the Ak-Oimeks began to break through the Tubdjak into the Bashkort, and tried to take the caravanserai. However, the Shambuts shoot down their horses and, bolting from the fortification, axed down the Kypchaks, helpless on the land, like hens. After that, the robbers began dodging the Sarman, and therefore there were always many merchants who liked tranquillity.

The Shambuts liked to go on the Shirdan’s ships to protect the freight on the Nukrat-su and Chulman from the attacks of the Galidjians, whom they fiercely hated, as all the Ulchians. These daring djigits readily served in the protection of the caravans going in Artan to see their relatives. But they always came back, for they were grateful to the Kan for the release from the shameful captivity and for the satiated life. Chelbir ordered to not take from them any taxes, and they ferociously fought with the enemies of the State under the banners of their benevolent Kan…

They worshipped Gabdulla, like an idol. Once my father saw on the river Shumbut a tree with a human face carved directly on the trunk. When he asked a Shambutian what was that, he shortly answered: “ Chelbir”…

And the feverish in trade Sadyk sent his son Paluan to the Sadum with a caravan, and he, reaching the Kara- Sadum, persuaded the local Emir Tap-Bulat to renew the navigation on the Chulman Sea to the city Ak-Artan at the Biysu. And during this trade both here and there were left hostages, who were changing with the arrival of the new ships. We went there for the Frangish tableware, weapons, silver and gold.

And that way was very severe and only the spirited daredevils, who were betting their heads for a fabulous profit, were heading there… The Sadimians also lodged in the court of Belebey in Hinuba. And Belebey was a Frangian priest taken prisoner during our attack of Khan Chishma. He was reiterating all the time that the world is threatened with unprecedented disasters from the East, and he had a reputation for being obsessed.

The Kan, merciful to such people, allowed him his foibles, like building a house with a tower in the middle of the roof. Only in such houses, he said, the people will be saved from the future blow, for the Kan of the enemies lives in such a house and therefore would not touch them. Many simple people in the suburbs swallowed his sermons and began erecting such houses in their auls. The mullahs tried to destroy them, but that resulted that the primitive people believed Belebey even more…

Soon came a sad news about the overthrow of the Emir Lachyn from the Gurdjian throne, by his own wife Samar-khatyn. She was a very salacious woman. When Khisami tried to restrain her bad inclinations, she persuaded her lover Beks to overthrow her husband. Only the Bek Ablas, whose name Lachyn gave to his son, supported the Emir and helped him to flee first to Emir Khondjak, and then to Emir Uziya. There he and his son accepted Islam, though he kept his Bulgarian name, and named his son Badretdin. Then they left through the Shirvan to the Ases, where lived the relatives of his mother Baygül Uslan-bi. And Uslan-bi was from the most notable Saklanian clan, and just the name alone saved a person from fatality in any place of the Saklanian mountains. Not sustaining…

… Became a place of pilgrimage of the Saklans, not a few of whom lived in the Saksin, Bandja, Bolgar and Bulyar.

The Saklans offered to the Emir to remain with them, but the restless life in the mountains did not suite him, and he returned to the State. The Bolgar, who esteemed his mother, invited him to them, but Lachyn asked the Kan for a small city, and received it at the Baradj-Chishma river. He named it Tabyl-Katau, as was called the Gurdja capital, abandoned by him. His son Bek Badri, also by his personal request, received the Khin and was nicknamed Ablas-Khin. He liked the danger, and he guarded the path of the caravans from the Saklan to the Saksin and Mardan-Bellak.

He was surrounded by the Ases, Almanians, Rums, Gurgjians, run-away Ulchians and Kypchaks, the same fearless daredevils as himself. When when the deprived of the fear Gabdulla once visited the Khin to meet his wife, who was returning from a trip to her relatives in the Djalda, at a farewell he noted to the Bek: “I leave your city with two feelings: a feeling of a pleasure of that I was not slaughtered in it, and simultaneously with a feeling of confidence in its safety”.

Lachyn and his son were notable for their giant strength, and Emir did not miss a chance to participate in noticed sabantuy maydan. The winner rights for the bride he was giving to the poor men who did not have an opportunity to win the hearts of the parents by their riches. He described the tricks of the Bulgarian fight in the book ”Instructions to wrestlers at maydan”. When my father noted once that it would be more useful to the youth to read his memoirs, the Emir said: “The histories of the Emirs do not give the mind anything but the corrupt ideas. A description about a capture of a thousand thrones is not worth a description of one fair victory at a sabantuy. The wrestling at the maydan is the only worthy occupation for all real men”.

He married my sister who, with her beauty, modesty and energy helped him forget about his shame. After his overthrow, to Gurgjans came the same that we had during Anbal’s time. The Beks, hungry as wolves, cracked down on the people, and on those few of them who called for honor and morals. Ablas was slaughtered at a feast of his villain relative, who coveted his possessions. His son Nurshad be-frated Elaur, after which Nurshad took the name of the Elaur’s grandfather Ryshtauly, and Elaur took the name Nurshad.

Having restored Mukhsha, the commander named the city with the name of the be-frat Bek. Nurshad was also forced to flee to the Khondjak, and from there to the Uzes. When Elaur invited him, Nurshad responded:” I Know, at your place it will be plentiful and safe, but it is far from my native land. But even when I am now among the alien Türkmen, but I am close to my land”. And the Türkmen Sultan offered him to become, with his help, the Gurdja Emir, but the Bek refused…

In 1203 the fire of the Ar’s revolt set ablaze the Kashan and Martüba… The crowd, led by the boyars, crushed into the Alabuga and tore down the Gali’s book about Üsuf. The kakhins called the mullah himself a main boyar of the enemies, tore him off from the chains, and began beating to death. A detachment of the Shambutes, sent by Mir-Gazi, pulled the mullah with an immense effort from the hands of the multi-thousand crowd.

The Ulugbek immediately asked the Kan to forgive Gali in the name of his sufferings, for the State and the faith, and to endorse his friend for the post of the Kashan seid. Chelbir forgave the mullah and expressed a hope that having received heavy wounds from the people he was protecting, he would not henceforth support the wretched and would cease revolting against the rulers. Having received this message, Gali, who was barely breathing from the beatings, told Mir-Gazi with a weak chuckle: “The “kind” Khan first chained me in bondage, but the ”malicious heathens” tore it off. Now the Kan desires that I start hating those who ripped off me his chains. But how can I be angry for it?”

The Ar’s rebellion extended, and the father did not dare to suppress it with a brute force. Ilias Yaldau, the son of Gabdulla, the Suvar Ulugbek, took advantage of it to capture of the post of the Bolgar Ulugbek. His snitch about the favoritism of the Emir Azan toward the rebels drove the Kan to fury, and he immediately sent to the Uchel my father. In 1204 Azan restored the city fortifications at the Bogyltau and even decided to build a medresse similar to the “Mohammed-Bakir”. But he only had time to repair and build up to the Arbat gate, which he wanted to use as a minaret. And it did not yield to the Suleiman minaret, and the father was very proud of it…

Even earlier father went to Kashan and invited Gali to consecrate the construction. The seid did not proceed into the fortress, for he declared a complete abdication from the power, and at first he stopped in the house of Belebey, and then in a house my father specially built for him, behind the Bulyak, where stayed for thirty days.

After his departure the house behind the Bulyak was transformed into the mosque “Otuz” (“Thirty”), and the Belebey’s house in the mosque ”Dervish Gali”, and since that time many mullahs began to transform similar houses into the mosques. My father took me to Gali, who became a saint during his lifetime, and asked him to bless me.

The seid instructed me and gave me the second name Baradj in memory of his mother, who descended from the Baradj clan. And I, Gazi-Baradj, the son of Azan, the grandson of Arbat, did not break any of his precepts: did not offend a neighbour, did not lie, did not kill and did not indulge into the temptations of wealth, power hunger, lust or selfishness, always empathized with the troubles of the needy, and was saving the people from the misfortunes. But I did not know of pleasure and rest in my life, for all my actions by his precepts were interpreted by the people as malicious acts, and my soul was constantly in confusion from it.

Oh, a wise reader! Judge for yourself the value of my life and the correctness of my actions, I am telling you about them everything that I remember, concealing nothing…

The medresse was never built, for Yaldau presented this construction to the father as an attempt to raise Uchel above the capital, and himself above the Kan. Chelbir ordered to stop the construction and to fire up the fight against the rebels, who were joined by the run away Ulchians and the kurmyshes. The father, not wishing to mar himself by killing his own people, asked Syb-Bulat to help the Martübian Mishars of the Djun- Mishar district to bring the rebels around.

The Balynian fleet, together with the Mishar Bulgars, attacked the rebels down to the aul Burat at the ferry across the Kara-Idel. The Emir Azan came there and accepted the captured Ars, and the captured run away Uruses he gave to the Balynians. In the rebellious districts for the ak-chirmyshes were erected the baliks Kukdjak, Chybyksar, Sunder, Alat, Urdjum, Alabuga, Archa, Nurshad. The Ars were broken, and kazanchis and kursybays caught in the forests and put to death the other instigators of the revolt.

In response, Azan in the 1207 AD, at the request of Syb-Bulat, suppressed a rebellion of the Djir Ars near the Ar-Aslap…

In 1208 the Galidjians found a part of the Sadyk’s people engaged in the supply of the provisions for the Sadumian vessels on the islands in the Chulman Sea. All of them were executed, and the embittered boyars raided the Kolyn. Sadyk, however, was warned by his people in the Galidj, and had time to summon the Shirdan’s fleet and to hide in the city. The Shirdanian salchis attacked the boyars from the rear, and Mer-Chura from the city, and the robbers were badly crushed.

Two thousand Galidjians were killed and all 24 boyars were seized. To the envoys of the Galidj, who brought rich gifts and presented the robbers for the lost and mistakenly stumbled into the State bilemchis, the Kan said that he will release, for the ransom, three boyars a year in the case the Galidjians observe peace, and will execute the same number of the leaders a year in case of the enemy raids.

After the captured were exhausted, the Kan allowed the Balynians to erect in the Urus part of the Shud a city of Djuketun at the merging of the rivers Djuk and Tun for containment of the brigands from the incursions into the State. As to trade on the Chulman sea, Sadyk hired new Galidjians for secret assistance.

The next year the Kan, indignant of the coerced taxation of the Bulgarian merchants on the Khorysdan road by the Kisans, sent Yakub Elaur against the Kisan. The children of Otyak from Bish-Ulbi jumped to join him. Urman, as usual, fled from the city, and the inhabitants, frightened by the clanking of the Bulgarian weapons, roped the culprit of the heists, boyar Kushpa, and threw him from the wall to the Mardanians. The Arbugains shot the villain with arrows and, taking a ransom from the Kisan, left…

After the death of the loyal to the State Syb-Bulat, his kind and quiet son Kushtandin took the Balynian throne. His brother, a spiteful and power-hungry Djurgi, immediately started a revolt with the purpose of capturing the power. The Kan could not tolerate it, and Guza, together with his father, went to pacify the audacious lad. The Djurgi’s robbers were crushed, though in the beginning rendered a bitter resistance and wounded the Emir.

For this, Guza ordered to not take any captives, and we ruthlessly put to death 10 thousand rebels. But right after the death of Kushtandin who, it was said, was poisoned, the Djurgi’s murderer seized the throne, and first of all annuhilated the Bulgarian merchants of the Djuketun. The ill-fated were coming back from the Artan, and only one of them, Bayram, the son of Umar, could escape and bring the sad news to the capital.

The Kan decided to punish the villains severely and himself went to the campaign together with me, the kursybai, Tukhchians and a thousand of Shambutes, whose 50 fellow tribesmen were guarding the caravan and were martyred, together with everybody, defending it,…

My senior brother Hakim for two years already was the Uchel Ulugbek, for in the 1217 my father left this frail world. Despite of the Kan’s offer to become the Bolgar Ulugbek, I refused, mindful of the Yaldau’s intrigues. To sooth my pain from this forced declination, the kind Dayr built in the Uchel, below the Bogyltau, a stone bath. It began to be called by his name. We set out from the Uchel in severe cold, and the lightly dressed Artanes stripped the Arian women and wrapped in their scarves and fur coats…

The Djuketun boyar Iliya, the murderer of the peaceful merchants, mistook them for women, and when my masters, under my guidance, knocked out the Djuketun’s wall, hollered to his men: “Good guys! The Bulgars, apparently, absolutely squinched and took to us their hussies. Let us screw these women!” A thousand of the Balyns heedlessly rushed out from the fortress for a sortie. And the Shambues yelled instantly: “Look! Good fur coats are running to us themselves! Let us take them!” They threw off their female attire and in a flash chopped down the scared mum Uruses. We walked into the city and left only charcoals of it.

After that we passed by the Balukta, taking from it for a tribute the bear and other pelts, and approached the Ar-Aslap. On the way we lost Guza, who fell under the Moskha ice… The Djir Bek Vasyl, the son of Kushtandin, owned this city, and I, for the good memory of my father friend, not without an effort persuaded the Kan to turn to the Radjil.

We bypassed this fortress where was the brother of Djurgi, the cowardly Ba-Aslan, and met the Shirdan’s fleet. Sadyk offered to Chelbir to allow his people, who were participating with him in the campaign, to pretend to be the Galidjian merchants and to quickly seize the gate. The Kan allowed it, and at night the ships with the Sadyk’s people, and with Tukhchis hidden under the pelts, sailed past the Radjil. In the morning they again, from the upstream, sailed to the city, and Sadyk asked the Bek for the permission to enter the fortress.

Bat-Aslap, who was expecting with alarm for the arrival of the Bulgars, was delighted that the rumors turned out to be false, and hospitably flung open the gate. The Sadyk’s people immediately seized them, and then, on his signal, the Tukhchis jumped out of the ships and broke into the city. After them all army came into the City and took it.

The Bek was seized in his house by one of the Bulgarian militiamen but was released after Bat-Aslap gave him a bag of his jewellery. Finding it out, the Kan ordered to chop the traitor in parts on the spot. The Radjil was also burnt, after which we safely returned to Uchel on the Shirdan’s ships. The spoils were so great that for their transportation we had to tie additionally about 200 rafts…

The Kan got accustomed that after his campaigns The Urus Beks immediately were sending envoys with apologies and a tribute. But Djurgi among all these Beks contrasted by his extraordinary recklessness, and therefore he was considered mad. Some internal malice constantly pushed him to bloody affairs, and I myself saw him smiling only during his atrocities. At the same time, he was extraordinarily coward at the approach of danger if he understood it.

The feeling of being threatened betrayed him only once, after the Chelbir’s campaign. The culprit of it was Bat-Aslap, who for his own vindication brought him a fictitious message about the death of the Kan in the Radjil. Inspired Djurgi in the early spring by a sudden attack seized the Djun-Kala balik. The Ulchians managed to cut the palings of the dungeon in two places, and the commander Markas of the Djun-Mishar district abandoned the balik after setting it on fire. Djurgi immediately erected a wooden fortress on the ashes of the Djun-Kala.

After that, while the Kan rested and was dismissing as improbable the message about it, Bat-Aslap sailed to Uchel with 15 thousand soldiers. Exactly the same as the Radjil Ars helped us to crush the Uruses, our Ars… met the Bek joyfully in the Burat, and joined him in 20 thousand quantity. They were embittered by a severe suppression of their revolt in the 1212. Then the revolt started when the Kashanian subashis demanded to equate them with the Echke Bulgar subashis in their rights.

They were immediately joined by the Ars, who demanded to be transfered to subashis after their acceptance of the Islam, in accordance with the old law. Gali told the rebels about this law, and informed the Kan about their request, and was protecting in his letter those igenchis whom he converted to Islam. Chelbir came to a fury. It was said that it was heated up by the restored book about Üsuf, presented to him by the seid, in which the Kan beheld a verse about the transition of the power from the senior to the younger brother.

Trampling the book, Gabdulla ordered to seize the seid again, as the instigator of the mutiny. Gali then declared in an answer that those who would try to cross Agidel for it, will sink in the river. Many, afraid to deal with the saint out of the superstitious fear, refused to execute the order of the Kan, and only Guza went to the Kashan. ”Look”, Elaur told him. “You may happen to sink”. The sardar, not knowing fear, only laughed in response. But, as it was already written, the Gali prediction came true…

Mir-Gazi persuaded Gali to leave from the country, and he did it only after the Emir promised him to spare the fate of the rebels. The seid fled to the Bolgar and from there, with the help of Yaldau, who hated his father, left with a caravan to the Khoresm. There he was hospitably received by the Emir Djelaletdin and received a post of the secretary of his archive…

Mir-Gazi convinced Guza to not touch the subashes, promising that for that they would restore the Korym-Chally fortress and build a new one. Korym was built after the attack on the Chally-Kala, but then came to a full decline. The subashis came around and really did the promised, and the Kan, who loved the military affairs above all, pardoned the rebels.

Guza again vented all his ire on the Ars, whose crowds surrounded the Kashan and Uchel, and they accepted the Islam. The kursybays without any pity hacked them along all the road from the Katan to Burat and, it is said, killed about 30 thousand of the kara-chirmyshes and kurmyshes who joined them. When Guza was passing with us from the Uchel to the Djuketun, Ars men, still in horror of him, fled to the woods, and the Artans had to undress their women.

However they did not loose their embitternment, and, as I already said, they joined Bat-Aslap. The Ars burnt Bish-Balta, and then began to set fire to the Akbikül also. I, thinking that against the city act the kara-chirmyshes, nonchalantly went with two hundreds djuras from the fortress to the suburb, to restore the order, and suddenly collided with Uruses who were breaking through the palings.

Three thousand of them were in the armor received by Djurgi from the Galidj in response to his promise not to attack that city. The armors were poor, worse than the kursybays’, but this still complicated the actions of the djuras, who were used to fight the Balynian warriors not having even those. Therefore the djuras, taking all the inhabitants out to the Bogyltau, preferred to set a fire to the Akbikül. However we could not leave the suburb, as the Balynians broke into the suburb and cut us off us from the mountain.

We had to leave through the Kan gates, which were not yet covered with flames. Hakim with his djuras made the way safely through the enemy lines. But I and the twelve djuras were suddenly cut off by a splash of a flame and, not to burn down, I had to step back towards the Uruses. We were fighting for some time until, at last, were brought down from the horses and taken into captivity. We were immediately taken to the Bat-Aslap camp, and it should be noted that nobody saw me. Our armours were rudely torn off us, we were tied with ropes and placed on the ships.

The fire was so strong that the palings of the Kalgan lit up, and its defenders hastened to set the fire to that part of city also, and to pass behind the Sain moat and to the Ügary Kerman. There were 100 more djuras there, and about 300 militiamen, who made a stand between the moat and this citadel of the Uchel.

The Uruses, many of whom burned up in the fire, also jumped out from the suburb and began to wait for the fire to end, so that together with the Ars try to take the Ügary Kerman.

Meanwhile the Kan sent nevertheless the kursybay of Gazan, the son of Guza, to the Uchel, to check on the rumors about Balyns’ intrusion. The sardar met my djuras near the city, learned about the situation, and attacked the enemies in the morning. Fortunately for the Balyns, in front of their camp, located by the river, was the camp of the Ars, because otherwise, undoubtedly, all of them would be smashed.

The kursybays stomped the Ars and laid waste a few thousand of the Uruses, but nevertheless about 3 thousand of them had time to board the ships and to sail hastily to the Kuman dungeon near the mouth of the Deber-su. Alas! The balik was also besieged by the Ars, and the Kumanians could not help us in any way.

As it turned out, Bat-Aslap had to join near the mouth of the Kama-Bulak with another group of the Uruses, who were coming to the State from the Ar-Aslap through Tunay. These Ulchians besieged the Kolyn, seized berthed there ships and boats, and in them and also on the tied together rafts, sailed down the Nukrat-su.

In the mouth of the river stood Nukrat, the son of Shirdan, who managed to crush the Araslapians. Only three Ulchian ships, out of the 50 ships and 170 boats and rafts, survived and rapidly sailed to the mouth of the Kama-Bulak. Nukrat sent in pursuit a few ships, but they could not catch up with the fugitives. Nukrat himself sailed to the Kolyn and freed the city from the siege. And the fugitives joined with Bat-Aslap, and he immediately sailed to the Balyn.

Gazan, having installed the order in the Uchel and catching those Uruses who dispersed in the forests, raced in pursuit. He by means of appeared in time With the help of the Nukrat’s salchis he crossed the river near the Burat, and near the Kuman managed to catch a few of the Balynian ships that holed up in the city.

The kursybays dispersed the Ars, pelted clowds of arrows onto the holed-up, and wounded or killed almost everyone. The salchis tied those ships to ours, and sailed with them to the Bolgar, where arrived the Kan himself. Among the captured was found a Balynian priest Abraham, whom the Chelbir immediately released. But for some more years he has lived in the State, and served as the priest to the Bolgar’s Christians.

I was meeting with him in the Rus, and he showed me his ”Story about Bat-Aslap raid to Uchel”. It was written truthfully and with a live language, but it did not gain favor of Bat-Aslap and Djurgi, and he was hiding it…

Djurgi was struck with the loss of his best troops, but he believed that he inflicted a big loss to the Bulgars also, without understanding that Uchel, large by the Balynian scale, was a second grade city of the State. Therefore he did not hasten to confess to the Kan, and even sent his last soldiers to the Djun-Kala to conquer the Mishar.

As to Chelbir, he fairly listed the Merchant war in the category of his best wars. The capture of the Dluketun and Radjil cost us 53 killed soldiers, and to crush Bat-Aslap cost us 60 djuras and 112 kursybays, while only Bat-Aslap lost about 6 thousand killed and as many captured. The Djirians only lost a total of 500 soldiers killed, but lost another 3500 captured.

The matter is that they besieged Kolyn without any desire for it, and when they met with Nukrat, they immediately disembarked ashore and surrendered to the old kind Tukhcha Balykbashi Akhtyam. Not without a reason that Djurgi suspected a treason and burnt the Djirian commanders with red hot irons, extorting from them about the secret connections of Vasyl with the State. However the commanders chose not to untie their tongues, and the Crazie let them alone.

In memory of the victory, Gabdulla gave to the Kolyn the name of Nukrat, gave the Tukhcha the name of Djuketun, and gave the Uchel the name of Gazan. As usual, we changed the Djuketun into Djuketau , and the Gazan into Kazan…

Only the failure to appear of the Djurgi envoys poisoned the pleasure of the Kan. After waiting till the winter, he sent the kursybay on the Balyn, and before that he sent a message to the Balynian Bek. In it there were such words: “You, a dog, thought that the war is flapping the oars on the Idel? I shall show you what is a real war. I shall burn out all that is now called Balyn so that the people will even forget this name.

And you will take it as the greatest favor of the heavens if I appoint you, a lousy, and with a shaven head and chin, as a head of the latest kurmyshian aul”. The Gazan was not too lazy to take along the masters with sheredjirs, and they quickly kindled the Djun-Kala. The Balynians in horror fled from the fortress enveloped by the flames, and were all mercilessly hacked up to the last man, in the quantity of 5 thousand persons. Among them were also those who avoided the death at the Uchel. When the inhabitants of the other boundary cities learned about it, they burnt in fear their fortresses and fled to the Bulymer.

Seeing the crowds of the refugees, Djurgi trembled and raced through the forests to the Amat, a small town near the boundary of the Galidj. Gazan went from the cinders of the Djun-Kala deep into the Balyn, but everywhere he was founding only the ashes. He was three days away from the Balynian capital when came a messenger from the Kan with an instruction to immediately turn back.

The sardar did not believe it, but Chelbir, knowing Gazan, after the first messenger sent both the second and the third messengers. Finally, having received the third message, and one day away from the Bulymer, Gazan was convinced in the authenticity of the order and with a bitter regret turned back.

The reason for it was the report that the Menkhols’ or in the Chin language the “Tatars” leader, Chingiz, invaded the Khoresm. Still earlier, from the merchants and Oimeks, the Kan received the news about the rise of this tribe, which has crushed the Ak-Oimeks, Kyzyl-Kashans and the great state of the east the Menkhin or, in the Tatarian, Menkhol.

Collating this news, Chelbir came to the conclusion that he is facing with a great, war-like and well-armed people, and decided to be ready to meet with all the might its possible pretences upon the State. And therefore he withdrew Gazan, whose kursybay was the military support of his throne. All this was kept secret so that the Uruses did not learn anything.

After the departure of the sardar, Djurgi at once sent envoys to the Kan, but they were not allowed beyond the Kazan, and were told that Chelbir ordered the Urus Beks to communicate henceforth with him through the Kazan Ulugbeks. Djurgi obediently drunk the drink of this great humiliation and, feeling the joy with his escape from the death, immediately agreed with the heavy for him conditions of the peace. Uruses were forbidden to have, build or restore the fortresses on the border with the State and on the way to the Bulymer, and proscribed to pay the tribute in the amount of two Djirian tributes. In addition, the Kan demanded a return of the captured Uchelians.

One of Ars identified me and notified Djurgi. Djurgi did not want to return me and ordered to hide in a dungeon and to inform about my death in the fire. But, being afraid that the captives could tell the truth, he ordered the Ars to kill the djuras at their delivery. He ordered to throw into a fire the three djuras about whose capture nobody knew. The released djuras were put on the ship and taken to the Djun-Kala. The trumpeters for the notification loudly blew the pipes and horns, as was customary at the exchange.

Unfortunately, my brother, the Kazan Ulugbek Hakim, thought it too excessive to be present during the exchange, and charged the Misharian üzbashi Elbay with the whole task. From the Djun-Kala Elbay went towards the exchange, but suddenly the Ars attacked the ship right in front of his eyes, and killed all that were in it.

While Elbay was raising his hundred who were guarding the restored balik, the Ars disappeared. Was seized only one, without his tongue, left intentionally behind by the Ars. He was identified as a run-away kara-chirmysh. Djurgi executed the Ars on the spot as soon as they returned to him, and turned over to Hakim their corpses. They were also identified as the runaways.

The Ulugbek was misled by it all, and informed the Kan about the death of the djuras from the hands of the run-away robbers. And the whole affair was finished with it, not including that Chelbir, upset with my imaginary death, ordered to turn over the captured Djuketun boyar Iliya into the Bayram’s hands. He wanted to give him to the Uruses for a ransom, but the Shambutians, learning about it, came to him and ransomed the boyar. Coming home, they tied the hated enemy to the Khud-Imen tree and finished him off him, setting up an axe-throwing competition into Iliya…

The envoy from Djurgi was Vasyl, whom he hated but could not remove for the lack of the strength and fear of the mutiny. Before the Bat-Aslap’s raid, Djurgi sent the Vasyl with his Djirians and a part of the Balyns to the Kolyn to distract the Nukrat’s fleet. And in fact, with the arrival of Vasyl, Mer-Chura immediately summoned the fleet, and the Balynians could land at the Uchel without any deterrence.

The Bek, however, told his djuras: “Djurgi sent us for a slaughter. We need to contact Sadyk, he will help us to save”. Before, Vasyl informed me about the forthcoming attack, and I secretly asked Sadyk to take care of the saving the Kushtandin’s son. Sadyk contacted Nukrat, and he let through the ship of Vasyl marked with a special banner. The salchibashy was sinking only the Balynian ships, enabling the Djirians, who were sailing in the tail end, headed by the Vasyl’s two loyal djuras, to come out to the bank and surrender. Nobody knew, certainly, about our arrangement with Vasyl.

The captured Djirians accepted Islam, and the Kan gave them the rights of the kara-moslems and settled them in the Kashan from the Nukrat-su to the Misha. And the Vasyl’s djuras were called Metka and Betka, and two Kashanian streams received their name. And the kara-moslems had the rights of ak-chirmyshes, and the Djirians were saying that in the State they found the kind country about which they’ve heard from the fairy tales about a happy life.

They adopted from us all the best and in their religious devotion even surpassed some Kashan people. Without any directions, the kara-moslems built a good road from the Bet-su on the Agidel to the Met-su near the Mishi, where they erected a city with earthen rampart Met-Kala or Echke-Kashan. By this road, by which were tracked wood, furs, honey, wax and other goods, were set up many excellent taverns with store stands and baths. And Chelbir was so pleased with the kara-moslems that he said once: “I would easily exchange all my Ars for the one-tenth quantity of the Djirian Ulchians”.

After concluding in the Kazan the treaty with the Balyn, the Kan turned entirely to the east. Through some merchants, he succeded in establishing a contact with the son of Chingiza Juchi, who was given the Kypchak part of the Tataria. Juchi was unhappy with it and pretended to the Khoresm, Persia and all Saklanian mountains. Chelbir promised to support him in that, and to help solidify his power in the Kypchak, and in exchange secured his consent to abstain from the direct support of the Tatarian claims against the State.

After Chingiz enjoined to call Menkhol the whole Kaganate, Juchi retained for his Kypchaks the Chin’s name “Tatars”. In addition to them he had 10 thousand Menkhols, and they were the most brave of the Tatars, well tempered in the wars with the Kypchaks, Türkmens, and the white and black Kyrgyzes. He liked that the Bulgars called Kuk Jorty the former Sabanian lands in the Kypchak, and he also began to call this intrinsic part of the Kypchak. But the Tatars called so only the Great Khan’s land, and Chingiz started to suspect his son of an aspiration to become higher than him.

The other son of the Great Khan, Ugyatay, acting to gain recognition as his successor, quickly perceived the Juchi plans and, not telling about it to anybody, began to incline his father to an attack on the Saklan Mountain and the State, with the purpose of interrupting these plans. Chingiz agreed to send to the West his best commander Subyatay with three tumens, that is in the Hons’ language 30 thousand warriors. And in the Hons’ language the “tima” meant “10 thousand”.

One half of the Tatars was armed, as our kazanchis, and another as kursybays. And in the State were 6 thousand kazanchis and 5 thousand kursybays, and 14 thousand of the suvarchi militiamen, who had the arms equal with the kursybays. All the others, about 25 thousand ak-chirmyshes, had even worse armours.

But in addition to the armors the Tatars had brave hearts, which knew not a pity, and among them never were undisciplined or tired men. Each of them knew that if he would not harden, would not subordinate, or get tired, he would be killed on the spot. They were divided into tens, hundreds, thousands and tumens. For the cowardice in the battle of one were killed tens, for the cowardice of ten were killed a hundred and so on.

And their executions were so cruel that I, having seen everything, could not watch through the end not even one, for in comparison with them even the worst death in a battle was a pleasure. The Tatars were forbidden to deflect their sights or somehow express their feelings, therefore the Tatars observed the seen by me executions in full silence and with passionless faces. And they held to such atrocity from the time as Chingiz uttered: “The cruelty is the only thing that keeps an order, which is the basis for the prosperity of the state.

This means, more cruelty, more order, which entails more wellbeing”. And he also said: “Tangra himself enjoined our state to rise, and his will cannot be understood by a reason. The cruelty should exceed the limits of the reason, for only this will help the realization of the Almighty will”…

And the Tatars hated Islam because they thought that Moslems, who joyfully parted with life during jihad, were dangerous to them. And, in contrast, they loved Christianity and the faith of the Hins, which called to humility and compassion, for the believed that their followers were weak and ready for submission to them…

For a murder of a noble they killed all the underlings, and for the murder of a leader they killed all people. Once the Menkholian tribe of Tatars, by which name the Chins called all the Menkhols in memory of their former domination above all of them, killed the father of Chingiz; and for it all Tatars were exterminated, including women and children.

And from that time on they called Tatars all those non-Menkhols who served them and who they were sending in the battles to their death ahead of themselves. And these serving Tatars shouted in the battle ”Tatar! Tatar!”, which meant: “All those who would not subordinate to Menkhol will be exterminated, as were the Tatars”… We called the Menkhols “Tatars” in the Chinian, and they, in Kumanian, called us “Besermёns”.

In the wars they did not spare neither women, nor children, therefore they did not have enough women and the debauchery was considered normal and casual. Homosexuality and bestiality did not concern them. Their robberies and violence they did only with permission, and their whole division used in turns all the seized children, women and young men. The Tatars never washed, like Kypchaks, for it was prohibited by their laws. The habit to obedience made them restrained and stupid, even though some of their leaders preserved the hospitality, and thoughtfulness, and other qualities.

In the military questions, for them the main authority was Emir Subyatay, and the supreme military title of the bakhadir, which was given only to the natural Menkhols, in the military councils equaled him with Chingiz and his descendants. The Chingizids regarded themselves as the masters of the whole world, and resolved the questions of life and existence of the others only from their benefit point of view. Almost all of them were extremely superstitious and did not value anything foreign…

Having received the order to advance to the West, Subyatai passed to the Saklan Mountain with the loss of 2 thousand men, and only in the Gurgjans he met an attempt to put up a strong resistance. Then Subyatai divided the army into three parts. To one part, under the leadership of his eldest son Chambek, he ordered to attack Gurgjians, and by a faked flight to bring them to the second part positioned in a expansive valley, led by the second son Uran-Kytay Bek.

It offered to The third part was directed to wait in a gorge between the hills ready for an ambush, and to enter the fight at a needed moment. The Emir, with 5 thousand soldiers, stood at a distance to direct the battle. Chambek managed to bring to the Uran-Kytay’s division the whole 40-thousand Gurdjian army. Uran-Kytay let through to his rear the soldiers of his brother, and began shooting down the Gurgjans lines in a cold blood. In the heat of the chase, they did not stop to rearrange their mingled units, and as a shapeless crowd threw themselves from the run straight on Uran-Kytay.

When they reached the archers, the Bek moved forward the swordsmen with heavy arms, and from the rear struck the Gurgjians the ambush Tatars. The fresh and heavily armed warriors hacked down without an effort all surrounded Gurdjian army, and the Tatars only lost 3 thousand fighters. After that Subyatai broke through to the steppe, where near the Kumyk creek he met the Ases, Kumans and the Saksin Tarkhan Bachman, the grandson of As and son of Torekul, who supported them.

The Kumans, who started the fight, were overturned and took to flight directly through the lines of the Saklans. Those also gave in to the panic, and a part of the Tatars came to the rear of Bachman. The Tarkhan, to escape the strike and to avoid to be surrounded, had to leave through the Djurash into the Gurgjans . Badri, who was delaying the Tatars, was taken prisoner in action.

The Kumans raced to the Bashtu and persuaded the Urusian Beks to go with them against the Tatars, promising them for it to help in the future capture the Khin from the State. To sway the Uruses for a joint raid on the State, Subyatai sent Chambek to the Bashtu, but those, incited by the Kumans, killed him. In a fight on the Kalga creek, 60 thousand Kumans broke the ranks and fled again with horses taken from the Ulchians, and the Kaubuys’s Bek Alish, trying to straighten out the situation, received a fatal wound, and his people disperced.

After that 50 thousand Uruses, scared of the excellent fighting abilities of the Tatars, locked up in a fortified camp. Subyatai sent to them Ablas-Khin with the repeat offer for their Beks to come out to talk about a joint campaign on the State. At the same time the bakhadir promised that those who would not come to him will be killed. All the Beks came out, and were immediately tied up.

The Emir brought the captives to the fortification and asked them whom to execute for the death of his son, the Beks or their troops? The Beks answered that their soldiers should be killed. After that the bakhadir said to the Uruses: “You’ve heard that your Beks betrayed you. Come out without a fear, for I will execute them for their betrayal of their soldiers, and I will release you”.

The Uruses, who were left without their commanders, surrendered. Then Subyatai ordered to put the Beks under the boards of the disassembled camp and offered to the Ulchians: “Your Beks wanted you to go first into the ground: So trample them into the ground for it”. The Uruses marched on the boards and squeezed all the Beks down. After that Subyatai noted that the soldiers who have killed their Beks also do not deserve to live, and ordered to hack up the all the captured…

20 thousand Tatars still remained in the saddles, and the bakhadir with a light heart went against the State. He believed that at that time has Juchi also already invaded the Bulgar from the east, for such was the order of Chingiz. The bakhadir forced Ablas-Khin to lead him directly to the center of the State, but through his djura the Bek managed to notify the Kan that he is leading the Tatars to the Kermek. Chelbir, having received an assurance from Juchi that he would not invade the State, drew immediately near the Kermek with 5 thousand kursybays, 3 thousand Bulgarian militiamen of Tetesh, the son of Dayr, 6 thousand kazanchis and 10 thousand Bashkorts.

In front of the city in the middle of the field were a few groves, in which posed the suvarchian archers with iron arrows and large bows. The shooters also took positions behind the wagons arranged into a circle. In front of the field was a deep gorge, the cavalry stationed behind it: first were the Bashkorts, behind them in front of the archers were kursybays, and behind the groves were the kazanchis…

Near the Idel, Subyatai questioned the correctness of the direction, and tried to turn to the north, but run into the Simbirsk rampart and was repelled. Then the Tatars tried to go south, but run into the Arbugian rampart and were also beaten off, losing at that one thousand men. Only after that the Menkholian bakhadir, cautious as a wolf, arranged with the Rus fishermen, who happen to be there, to ferry them, and sent his son forward to scout.

Uran-Kytay with 3 thousand Tatars and 14 thousand Türkmen and Kumans, out of the 50 thousand who joined them, crossed the Idel and proceeded unworried to the vicinities of the Kermek. Finding nobody on the way, he informed his father that the way is open. Subyatai also crossed the river and followed his son. But as soon as Uran-Kytay began to accend from the gorge the field, the cavalry began to fire at him.

Not baffled at all, he raced forward and broke through the Bashkorts’ lines into the field. Here he was already met by the kursybays and was unpleasantly struck that their arms were not any worse than the arms of the majority of the Tatars. Uran-Kytay had time to send a messenger to his father with a request for a reinforcement. The Menkholian bakhadir, surprised a little, sent another 2 thousand Tatars with heavy arms and 23 thousand Türkmen and Kumans, when he suddenly received a news from the Urus fishermen about an approach of the Nukrat’s fleet.

A bad gut feeling had crept into the soul of Subyatai, but nevertheless he hung on for one more messenger from the son. He again asked for reinforcements, and the Menkholian yaubashi understood that he fell into a trap. Without sending a single man more, he rushed back and barely had time to cross the Idel under the nose of Nukrat.

Uran-Kytay, girded by the reinforcements, could break through lines of the kursybays and came under the bombardment from the groves and from the behing of the wagons. Noting that the suvarchian arrows punch even the armors of his best troops, the Bek obstinately was going ahead nevertheless, until he collided with the kazanchis of the Kan himself. Those drove him again back to the field, where were working away the archers.

Though the way back was open, no Tatars leave the battlefield, knowing that for the return without the commander they will be immediately and terribly executed. At last, the Bashkorts and the kursybays closed the ring of encirclement around the enemy. At that moment one arrow killed the Uran-Kytay’s horse, and it fell and pinned him down. The Bek, seeing that it is all over, with a hoarsely shout ordered the soldiers to surrender. The Kan, having received a message from Nukrat about the Subyatay’s readiness to enter negotiations, ordered to stop the massacre…

Of the Tatars on that field, 4 thousand were killed, and one thousand with Uran-Kytay himself was taken prisoner. We lost 3 thousand Bashkorts and kursybays, 350 Bulgarian archers and 150 kazanchis. In the turmoil of this battle Ablas-Khin could run to us, he was brought to the Kan and received immediately the title of Emir from him.

Subyatay expected the worst, for beyond the Idel, in front of him, was the indestructible Kan, and behind him loomed the Arbugians, barely contained by the Mardanian Tarkhan Ünus, the son of Elaur. Nevertheless Chelbir, mindful of the damage to Juchi, allowed the Menkholian bakhadir to take the remains of his army through the Sarychin crossing, and even gave him the captives.

To tell the truth, the Kan did not deny himself of a pleasure to mock the beaten Tatars, and ordered to take one ram for every captive, and for Uran-Kytay, as the especially dumb, ten rams. Immediately, on the bank, in front of the eyes of the humiliated Tatars, the Bulgars had a feast and ate all the rams, and that’s why this battle has received the name “Baranian” (“Ram battle”- Translator’s Note)…

Under the protection of Ablas-Khin the Tatars were pulled out from the State to beyond the Djaik. At the farewell, Subyatai silently handed over to him his sword and immediately whipped his horse…

Learning about the departure of the Tatars, Bachman returned to the Saksin from the Gurdjian Khondjak province, and that with the fight, for the Gurgjians did not want to let him pass with his arms…

Juchi gave his father as excuse that he was busy handling the Kypchak affairs. In 1225 he defeated the Ak-Oimek Khan Karabash. Before that the Khan in every possible way kowtowed to Juchi, and even trounced the embassy of the Khorezmian Emir, sent to the Kan for the help. Gali, who was in the ambassadorial caravan, was taken prisoner and for some years wandered in the steppes with the Kypchaks.

The Oimeks, upon learning that he is a storyteller, did not let Karabash to turn him over to the Tatars. Because the Kypchaks thought as inadmissible to do evil to the chichens, who, as they believed, could talk with the sky and consequently were saints. Gali composed for Oimeks a few songs, which I have heard from them. And the seid, after the time of his incarceration in the Alabuga, began to call himself Kul-Gali, as a sign of his sympathy for the oppressed people and his position…

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