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HomeDatelinesThe most ancient history of Bulgars – 3

The most ancient history of Bulgars – 3

Chapter 18. Bulgars in the reign of Kolyn and Anbalа (1118-1163)

In the 1118 AD Adam unexpectedly died, and Shamgun became the Kan. Before the death of Adam, the subashis and small owners, impoverished by the Oymekian and Kumanian raids, were asking about tax relief. Right after the death of Adam, the Baytübians began throwing out the bilemchi officials, and in the Bulyar itself flared up a revolt against the city magistrate.

The magistrate in the capital and in other big cities was called “Suvar Yorty”, for the people called merchants and masters (ostalar), i.e. the owners, the “suvari”. The protesters beat several of his suvarbashis and bilemchis. In spite of the warning by Yakub, Shamgun decided to suppress the discontent with force and summoned the kursybai. Subash refused to play the role of the executioner, and then the irritated Kan dismissed the kursybai and ordered Subash to come with repentance.

Subash hid in the Mardan, which was not extraditing the fugitives. Then Shamgun summoned the Bulgarian and Suvarian kazanchis, and those gladly suppressed the revolt. And they boasted to also do the same in the Mardan. Out of a hatred to the Mardanians they called them, and the Bandja, and the whole Mardan-Bellak as “Burtas”. It irked the Mardanians, and in retaliation, they began to call “Suvar” the tiniest city of the province, Razi-Suba.

After all this the Kan, not feeling secure in the Bulyar, moved the capital to the Bolgar.

In the 1120 AD Kolyn, conspiring with the Balyn Bek Djurgi, decided to overthrow with his hands Shamgun, who lost the love of the people. Under his order Balus let pass the fleet of the Balyns through the Martüba, and Djurgi suddenly besieged the Bolgar.

Nobody supported the Kan, and he had at hand near him only the remaining 50 djuras. He tried to prevent the disembarking of the Uruses even with them, but, however, lost half of his people and was forced to retreat to the “Mumin”. Bulyarians and Mardanians did not send any help, and the kazanchis coolly waited out for the capture of the citadel by the Uruses. 

Djurgi, however, was slow, because he lost 1250 troops, in the fight with the djuras and with the plundered by the Uruses inhabitants of the Bolgar baliks. Then Shamgun, who by his character was simple and not arrogant, though quick-tempered as his father, declared to people his decision for tax relief. The lay townspeople immediately collected a militia and took positions on the walls, and those not injured by the punishment Bulyarians quickly sent a company to the Bolgar. This forced Kolyn to come to the citadel and declare to Shamgun: “Kan! You see, that is happening! Give me, with my loyalty to you, the Bolgar, and you yourself go to reign in the Bulyar!”

Understanding, that joint kazanchis with the Uruses will be disastrous for him, Shamgun followed the advice of the sympathetic Selim, and left to the Bulyar. So Bulyar again became the capital. And Kolyn, to prevent the Kan from suspecting him, attacked the camp of Djurgi with the Suvars and the fleet, with a pretext of punishing him for the sluggishness and cowardice. Seven out of eight thousand Uruses were slashed, stomped and drowned by the kazanchis and salchis. Djurgi had barely time to flee with the last thousand, and never more in his life thought of a campaign against the State.

His father Altyn-Kalgan wanted to execute Djurgi for the loss of the army, but, learning about he captured 25 djura’s armours, said: “Let it pass! The armours are excellent, and if the Bulgars were selling them to us, I would give them in exchange and even more of these lousy mujiks!” Nevertheless, my father saw once at the Balynian Bek the Urus book, in which it was written about a victory of Djurgi in this Kolyn war. When he told the Bek that it was untrue, and told him how it was as witnessed by Yakub, the Bek burst out laughing and noted: “We have different concepts of the victory. For us is important, that Djurgi defeated Shamgun and hauled off valuable for us spoils, and how many people the Kan had, and how many mujiks we lost in fight is not important for us”.

And my father, and I, when we were in the Rus, did not stop being astonished of the contempt and indifference with which the Urus Beks took their people. And we also noticed, that the Balynian books did not write about the events in the neighbouring, Urus Beilyks, unless only it was a concern for them…

And the Uruses are very diverse people, and they are strongly subject to pursuits, bad and good. So anyone writing about this people on a short acquaintance can write about them as very bad and very good, but thus both this and that will be truthful.

Generally to know them well, one has to live for a long time among them… Their nobleness to you can run along with treachery and inhumanity to others. The insults from the stronger neighbours made the Uruses inclined to inconstancy, insidiousness and deceit.

And the Bek Kushtandin told my father that disaster of his people was the drunkenness, and that some people are inclined to blame for the spread of it the “nasraniyat”. But their false doctrine has nothing to do with it. Actually it comes from the old heathen custom. Once the Ulchians were most kind people, unable to spill anybody’s blood, even of the criminal. But then they experienced terrible attacks of the enemies, and they had to fight.

Their Kakhins (volkhves) ( Slavic term for pre-Christian clergy, spiritual leader, magic and medicine men – Translator’s Note), who were called boyars by the Hons, began giving the soldiers inebriates before the fight for bravery. Drinks also were given to the people after the fights, so that they could live through those awful losses which they had. So people got used to the drunkenness, and then this heathen custom also corrupted many of their clerics, the priests.

Such papazes should be executed, but it was not possible, as they were an only force resisting to the even more wild heathen customs. Besides, the priests were also drinking to earn the love of their drinking flock. Also, it comes out that sometimes papazes drink more than parishioners. So, I saw in Balyn a drunk priest who choked to death with a soup, which he drank directly from the kettle after blessings the fishermen for the fishing…

And when the Urus drinks, he becomes either very kind, or very spiteful and bloodthirsty. And a kind can become malicious, and a malicious become kind. This, by the way, is also used by our merchants when they want to buy something from the Urus dealer cheaper, and more often they win…

It is said that Djurgi, returning from the campaign, heavily drank and, coming into a fury, ordered to execute immediately the aged Akhad. And he compelled the Kisan Bek Ar-Aslap, one third of whose army was killed at the Bolgar, for the murder. Then, after the death of Altyn-Kalgan, who was afraid to irritate the Kan and who brought his apology to Shamgun for the unauthorized raid of his son, Ar-Aslap, also provoked by Djurgi, closed the Khorysdan road. The son of Ar-Aslap from a Kaubuy girl, Ryshtauly, objected to this and was thrown by his father into a dungeon. From the incarceration he was helped to flee by a Kaubuy servant. Ryshtauly came to Kolyn, was received fondly by the Emir and in the winter sent home with the kursybai of the Subash son, Khalik Kandjalyi, who transferred to the service of Selim.

Mukhshanians, who disliked Ar-Aslap for his servility to the Balyn, opened the gate of the Kisan, and the kursybai rode into the city in full order and without looting which usually accompanies a war. The young Ryshtauly immediately sat on the father’s throne, and Ar-Aslap plunged into his own dungeon, where he soon died from affliction.

Pleased with a peaceful mood of Kandjalyi, the Kisans immediately freed the seized earlier Bulgarian merchants, and paid a huge tribute, an excellent squirrel pelt from a household. Though, the pleasure of the victory was clouded by the grief of the new Bek. He learned, that his heartless father, in retaliation for his flight, told his mother that Ryshtauly drowned in a river. The mother of the Bek died from the grief, and Ryshtauly vainly called for her at her tomb. The grief of the Bek had such a sorrow form that even the grievous Kandjalyi began to cry as a child.

Ryshtauly became a faithful ally of the State, despite of the temptations, instigations and threats coming from the neighbouring Urus Beilyks. He was the first Urus Bek to whom, out of respect for him, the State gave a title of Emir, that is the Great Bek. With that, he was equated with the Great Beks of the Bashtu.

In the beginning, he was quite annoyed by his brothers from other wives of his father. They fled to the Kumans of Bonyak, and warred with him against Ryshtauly, until in two years Kandjalyi came again, and squashed them all in the fortification Boryn. Only one of the Ar-Aslap’s offsprings could to flee and secure himself in the Kan-Mukhsh with the help of the Balyns. The other five were laid on the spot, as they attempted to resist, and were fouled by the murder of the merchants.

Kandjalyi caught up with the fleeing Bonyak in the field called “Khelek”. The unlucky Khan tried to fight off in the fortification made of the wagons on the bank of the Shir, but was caught and tied down.

Kandjalyi gave Bonyak to Ryshtauly, and Ryshtauly gave him to the Ulubiy of the Bashtu as a present. It is said that he was forced to accept the false faith of the nasrans and died in a monastery.

Kandjalyi received for this victory a nickname Boryn. The Khorysdan road has opened, which calmed the merchants…

Instead of Kolyn, the Mardanians elected the son Hajdar of Balus as the Ulugbek. When Balus expressed in this connection his complains to the Bellakians, they answered: “You forced us to be at war too much, and Hajdar is peace-loving. Besides Hajdar is your son, and you should be pleased by his advance”. The complaint of Balus also rejected Selim, with the words: “I can’t fail to consider the decree of the Kan and the will of the Mardanians, otherwise I will look like a criminal”.

Emir Kolyn-Selim was one of the wisest men of the State, he put its interests higher than his own, but with that he also knew his price. He could easily overthrow the Kan, but he saw the danger of the kazanchi’s domination which was restrained only by his silent alliance with Shamgun.

In the 1135 AD, when the Kan went to the Baradj to repel the daring attack of the Kara-Oimeks of the Khan Manuk, the state was dignified with a visit of the mullah Abu-Hamid from the Garnatian kingdom. Unfortunately, my grandfather Arbat Os-Ladj, who was earlier the Ulugbek of the Bulyar, and after the Kolyn War was transferred to the post of the governor in the Saksin, which was separated then from the Bellak, showed indifference to the matters of the faith, and consequently did not render to Abu-Hamid an appropriate honour. More welcoming turns out to be the other son of Shamgun, Emir Otyak Ulug Mohammed Djangi, who substituted for my father during his absence in Bulyar.

The mullah, as is customary with the great preachers, refused to enter the palace of the Kan, and then the Emir honoured him with a pleasant conversation in the Altyn-munch. Seid Yakub met the mullah with even greater courtesy. At his request, the descendant of Atrak ibn Musa, the owner of the big trade and craft house Abu Bekr ibn Ahmed, gave the mullah one of his houses for a residence.

In the conversation with the seid, the mullah admitted that what he had seen in the state surpasses anything that he have heard about it before. The son Idris of mullah remained in the Bulyar to study in the house of sciences “Mohammed-Bakiriya”, and the mullah, after making his acquaintance with the country, went by the Horys-yuly to the Rum on a business. On the way he visited the Kaubuy Beylik, where Yakub was successfully spreading the light of the true faith, and prayed in the mosque of the Kaubuyian capital Kyr-Kuba near the Batavyl. The mosque was called by the Kaubuys “Baryn”, in honour of the Alp of the Buri victories. Yakub had to take it so to repel the Kaubuys from the faith…

That campaign of Shamgun was the last for the Kan. His Baytübian militia was surrounded by the Oimeks of Manuk and only the arriving in time, under the order of Kolyn, kursybai Kandjalyi could overrun them. When Oimeks started to flee, the Kan angrily told to Khalik: “Why you did you disobey my decree and did not dismiss the corps?” And the kursybai was saved due to the means of Selim, The cautious Emir decided to ignore the will of the Khan, for the state could not do without the kursybai.

From the difficult situation the Sardar was saved by a poisoned Oimek’s arrow, shot by a fleeing Kypchak. It slightly scratched the face of the Kan which was open for the conversation, but the poison killed Shamgun soon.

Kandjalyi in a fury sent his arrow, which went through the head of Manuk, and then caught up and without any mercy exterminated all army of the Khan.

The underpinning of the Kolyn’s influence fell, and he did not dare to counteract the kazanchis who have raised Anbal to the throne. However soon he came to the Bulyar together with the Kandjalyi’s kursybai and offered the kazanchis to conclude an agreement with him in the presence of the Kan. And to ensure that ulans did not evade the negotiations and did not undertake any rash actions, he warned, that he gave Kandjalyi and Haidar an order to storm the capital in case of the failure of the meeting. Then Selim nonchalantly went alone to Suvar Yorty, right into the epicentre of the kazanchi’s gang, and declared there: “A good politician is a good merchant. So let’s negotiate”.

It is said that in the Magistrate the shouts were flying higher than in the market. Not once the ulans moved against Kolyn with naked arms, but eventually they were forced to a deal with him.

The contract was the following: the kazanchis were exempted from the compulsory military service and from the tax from estates; the territories of the subashes’ provinces in the Northern Djebelstan, on the right bank of the Kara-Idel of the Martüba, Suvar and Bulgar ils were reduced in half in favor of the kazanchis, and all the lands on the river Alat in the Martüba district of Kukdjak also were transferred to the ulans; the means of the Kan’s court increased tenfold from the state treasury, and could grow only in a case of the income exceeding the level of the income in the 1135; Selim received the post of the Bolgar Ulugbek for life, the right to control the government officials and the treasury, the Suvar Yorty in the Bolgar, Nur-Suvar and Saksin, the foreign policy, Kashan, Saksin, Ur and Biysu provinces of the state; Mardan – Bellak kept its rights.

After the negotiations Kolyn went to the Bolgar, conceding what he yielded to the devouring kazanchis. The kursybai was permanently stationed in the areas handed to the ulans, so that they did not annihilate all subashes and each other during the reshuffle…

The Kan, having delegated the affairs to several of his favourites, engaged in the hunting, feasts, burdensome for the population trips in the Inner Bulgarian ils of the Baytüba, Tamta, Martüba, Suvar and Kashan, during which the events rarely went without robberies and murders of the subashes, without dishonouring the wives and daughters of the kara-chirmyshes and ak-chirmyshes. The seid Yakub, who contrived to contend in writing and orally with the Kan, was had his tongue cut and eyes gouged, and died soon.

It is said that in his last days he, deprived of everything, earned a livelihood by playing a dombra at the market. And his house of sciences was transformed into a den where the Kan surrounded by the ulans and their mistresses drank quite often. A favourite entertainment for Ambal and his clique was a corruption of the chaste shakirds by forced drinking and forcing on them wanton women who were made to sit half-naked on the laps of the unfortunate pupils.

The grandson Kul-Daud of Yakub, who came back from the hadj (during which he fell into slavery and was ransomed by the Khondjakians in the province Tatyak for a silver jug), was so terrified with this situation that he organized a brotherhood of Sufis and dervishes at the mosque “El-Khum” in the Nur-Suvar and said to the brothers: “Allah deprived the Bulgars of his favour for the widespread of the faithlessness infection. Include in a circle of our brotherhood “El-Khum” the new members, and pray and devoutly have faith for two, three, five, ten of the common believers. When the force of our faith will be equal or surpass that which would be in case of all faithless in our State accepting Islam, then the Merciful Creator will save us”.

Anyone entering the brotherhood endowed all his property, and lived on the received from the “El-Khum” means not richer than a kurmysh, and called for denouncing of the luxury, war, all kinds of oppression and slavery, hypocrisy and deceit. In the Bulyar the brothers, led by al-Garnati Idris, the son of Abu-Hamid, settled in a part of the Hinuba. Among the brothers were many subashes and ak-chirmyshes, who gave up all of their property under a threat of its capture by the kazanchis.

In 1153 the ulans, hating the brotherhood, seized Idris and martyred him. After that the brothers moved to external balik of the Saklan city, and they’re called their uram Tatyak, and in the capital, the palaces of the kazanchis began one by one to go up in flames… No new trouncings of the dervish khanak could stop the arsons. When the raging kazanchis surrounded the mosque “El-Khum” in the Nur-Suvar, the Suvar Yorty went to protect the brotherhood, setting up a militia for the protection of the khanak. The cousin of the Kul-Daud father a Suleiman, who was the son of the Saksinian seid Daud, and himself the seid in the Nur-Suvar and Bulyar, called for Kolym to intervene immediately, and the Emir did not miss a chance to wound the kazanchis.

He encircled the Nur-Suvar with the Bulgarian militia and the kursybai of Kurnay, the son of Kandjalyi, and also with Arbugians, who do not have any concept of fear or pity in the war and declared: “Our state emerged and prospered by the will of Allah. Now some kyafirs are going to exterminate all the truest of the devout, to deprive her of the favour of the Creator. It can not be tolerated, and at the first new murder of a dervish I will trample the guilty into dust”.

The kazanchis, clenching their teeth, retreated, though in the secluded places, given an opportunity, they secretly continued to revenge with the brothers.

In that year Abu-Hamid al-Garnati again came to the Bulyar, and met with an open hostility of the Kan and his spongers. Abu Bekr was not any more in the capital, he moved to the Bolgar because he was afraid of the pillages by the kazanchis,. Suleiman could barely find for him a pity dervish shed in the Tatyak where a corpse of his son was brought to him. We expected sad cries and moanings, but the mullah only said: “He left this world by the will of Allah in the name of the best”, and began to pray eagerly.

Abu-Hamid arrived by the Horys-yuly through the Bandja, which the Arabs were calling by the name of the local sacred creek Nut, and was immensely surprised with the changes in the State. His friend Emir Otyak was hiding from the kazanchis under a wing of Kolyn in the position of the Saksin Ulugbek, and the Moslems were sighing and secretly complaining to the Creator about their misfortunes…

However the external affairs, thanks to Salim, were good. The destruction of Manuk forced the Kara-Oimeks to be quiet, and, after negotiations with the envoy Kurnay of Kolyn they agreed to submit to the State and to form a Tubdjak province subject to the State. Only one Oimekian Khan Bashkort decided to remain independent and, with the help of Otyak, peacefully passed with the Oimeks through the !!Saksin to the Kumanian steppes. The Bukharian or the Khorasan road became quiet again.

The Balynian Bek of Djurgi tried to implant in the Kisan his viceroys, but it was repulsed every time.

In the 1140 AD just an appearance of Kurnay was enough for the Balynian armies to flee from the Kisan…

In 1150 the son of Djurgi Khan-Türyay dared to refuse paying the Djir Tribute. Simultaneously the Galidjians began to disturb the districts of the Biysu province with their raids: Nukrat… and even the vicinities of the slammer Tuymas-Artan on the river Biysu, wherefrom the Chulman Sea came the Sadumian ships and for the trade gathered the hunters, fishermen and shepherds of the Tunay (North) tribes, the Tunians.

And the Tuymas-Artan established the Bulgarian merchant Tuymas, who was trading with Artan, at the time when Ugyr Bashtu closed the Artanian road through the Galidj. The guarding of the slammer was by slammer Shudian clan Kuyan, famous for the trade of the excellent hare pelts.

And Yakub wrote that during the Mar’s time these pelts served as money and were called “barmal”, i.e. how the Shuds called the Bulgar. And the first coins, minted with the Michael insisting during the Bat-Ugyr Shamsi-Malik time, were called “barmals” too…

Disturbed with the behavior of the Ulchians, Kolyn summoned Kurnay and told him: “I helped you and your people during a hard time for the sake of the well-being of the State. Now came the time for you to pay off and to make a big campaign against Tunay”.

They set out together in the winter of the 1150, heading the kursybai and ak-chirmyshes to the Tunay, where they established a new centre for the Biysu, the city of Kolyn near the balik Nukrat on the Nukrat-su, crushed some slammers of the Galidjians on the river Tun, and in the end besieged the Ar-Aslan and left it, after receiving a squirrel pelt from each household.

After that Khan-Türyay invaded the Kara-Mukhsha and captured the Kisan, but escaping from him Ryshtauly, together with the arriving just in time Mardanians of the son Haidar of the Bek Baychura quickly righted the situation.

It is said that at a dawn Ryshtauly came again to the Kisan with a small group, and after a short exchange of fire run to retreat. The Khan-Türyay was celebrating the victory all night long, and could not get up from the bed, and sent his commanders in pursuit. Those got in an ambush of Baychura, and were mercilessly wiped out by the Arbugians.

A few of survivors rushed back to the city with awful cryes and brought in a confusion. Khan-Türyay, learning about the death of the commanders, barely had the time to ride back from the Kisan to the Balyn, half-naked in one boot. The rest of his troops also rushed to follow. Baychura reinstated Bek Ryshtauly in the city, and then also kicked out the Balyns from the Kan. The Bek did not plunder but took from the Kan a squirrel pelt from each household. In two years Balynians again took the Kisan from Ryshtauly and robbed the Bulgarian merchants. In response, Kurnay and Baychura in the winter burnt the provinces of the Kisan, Kan and Bulymer.

In the same year died Emir Kolyn, and the State for ten years plunged into a gloom of the kazanchis’ despoiling. The kursybai was disbanded. The kazanchis, as hungry wolves, broke in into the subashi areas and began to press ingichis into the wilderness. The ulans settled the seized lands with the Serbiyans and Ars, who they captured in open raids on the treasury lands.

The Martüba Ulugbek Os-Ladj did not interfere, afraid for his life. Seid Suleiman, in horror from the happenings, fled to the Emir Otyak to the Saksin, but soon he too had to seek safety in a flight to his father-in-law Bashkort. Kul-Daud, installed as a seid of the Bulyar by the demand of the suvarchis, barely held the pushy kazanchis from the pillaging the suvarchis’ homes. Everywhere the tax collectors committed unruly roguery collecting taxes increased in two-three times. When the representatives of the Kan came to the Bandja with the message that the tribute from the Mardan is increased twofold, Baychura exclaimed: “No overseas enemy oppress us more than our own Kan!” Though the Bek paid the tribute, these words of his were not forgotten.

In 1117 the son Sarychin of the Khan Sharafhan flew to Saksin. Not trusting anybody from his own, the Kan appointed the Sarychin,s son As to the vacated post of the Saksin Tarkhan. And here and in the provinces, Biysu, Mardan-Bellak, Ur, Tubdjak the governors were called Tarkhans, and in other ils they were called Ulugbeks (or, sometimes, Ulubiys). As the Saksinians looked upon the new Tarkhan as at the pillager, most of the time he stayed in the aul Bekhtash, where began the road from the Idel to the Shir. Later, nevertheless, the inhabitants of the Saksinian Suvar had pity on him, and he transferred his court to this city.

Offended by Bashkort, the Khan was afraid of attempts from the side of the Oimeks and consequently called from the Gurgjans his brother Atrak who was serving there. Atrak, however, not for long suffered in the service to the State, and fled under the wing of Bashkort.

During this sad time, only Arbat kept his calmness, for he was guided by the words which said seid Bakir to the Bulyar rebels and had them confused: “Charge Allah with your life and fate!”.

Deciding to build up the Ügarykerman wasteland, he prepared stones and asked the son Aslan of Kuchak-Kachkyn to erect some beautiful buildings. Aslan with the pupils erected the palace of the Bek, amazingly decorated with stone leopards, lions and other images, and the big portal for the Ulugbek Court, however, an attack by Otyak stopped the construction. Envying the craftsmen, the Balynian Biy for the huge money hired Aslan and his assistants, and they erected for him precisely the same buildings. And a part of the stones which became not needed, tracked to Balyn and built a few churches from them…

Otyak, exhausted by the inconveniences of the wild steppe life, left his father-in-law and moved to the Bashtu, wherein 1159 his wife gave birth to his son Gabdulla. He was a small copy of the grandfather Khan, and Bashkort adored him and frequently visited his son-in-law in the Bashtu to see his grandson. The Uruses not only did not interfere with this but were even pleased, as at that time there was a peace between them and the Kypchaks of the Saklan, headed by Bashkort.

Having lived for some time in the Bashtu, Otyak moved to the Balyn, to the Khan-Türyay, who promised to help him to take the father’s throne.

Meanwhile Anbal did everything to lose the throne. The plunders of the kazanchis and officials, impacting everybody, except for them, caused a popular hatred of the Kan… The ak-chirmyshes of Kukdjak and the subashis of Arsu united with the Ars and began to repulse the brutes. Simultaneously the former kursybays of Kermek and now the subashis, finished off the tax collectors. In the Kermek auls the bilemchis tried their abuses as they did in the auls of the other provinces, but the severe bakhadirs who were not used to the abuses, mangled then on the spot.

Baychura immediately declared, that he will stand united with Kurnay, and the scared Kan decided to overcome him by entrapment. But in the beginning, he sent the son of Sarychin to the Martüba. Well knowing the situation, Arbat invited the Tarkhan, and suggested to him to go round the auls of the subashes and ak-chirmyshes. As-Tarkhan did that, using the kara-chirmyshes. He sold some captured Ars to the kazanchis, and the others tied to the bulls and, flogging them with knouts, drove to Bulyar.

After that, the Kan wooed the daughter Samar-bi of Baychura and invited him to the wedding. The unfortunate Tarkhan could not refuse to come to the wedding of his own daughter and arrived in the Bulyar. Right at the entrance to the capital, he was chopped up into pieces by the kazanchis. Samar, learning about it, fled to the Bandja and there she was proclaimed the Ulugbika.

Finally, the power of Anbal was sapped by the death of Kul-Daud. The court of the restless seid in the Tatyak with the beginning of the troubles, under an order of the Kan, was surrounded by the kazanchis who did not allow the allegationsof the mullah to leave the Saklan balik. Then Kul-Daud refused to accept food until the end of the abuse, and died of starvation. It was in 1163. On his tombstone per his will was written: “In the court of the Allmighty will be judged my father and mother and I, who died for the faith”.

And during the reign of Khisam the stone construction gradually stopped, and in the stone quarries accumulated plenty of the slabs. Kul-Daud ordered “El-Khum” to buy them and put on the tombs of the devout Moslems with a corresponding inscription, so that Allmighty could distinguish the righteous from the infidels.

As soon as the message about the death of the seid reached the Bulyar, people went on the streets and with were dispersed with extraordinary cruelty.

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