The Sardinian NURAGHE or SU NURAGHE:
The Sardinian NURAGHE is defined by the Wikipedia link at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuraghe] as follows:
“The nuraghe [nuˈraɡe] (plural Italian nuraghi, Sardinian nuraghes) is the main type of ancient megalithic edifice found in Sardinia. Today it has come to be the symbol of Sardinia and its distinctive culture, the Nuragic civilization. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the etymology is “uncertain and disputed”: “The word is perhaps related to the Sardinian place names Nurra, Nurri, Nurru, and to Sardinian nurra heap of stones, cavity in earth (although these senses are difficult to reconcile). A connection with the Semitic base of Arabic nūr light, fire … is now generally rejected.” The latin word “murus” (wall) may be related to it (M. Pittau, philologist), as the old Italian word “mora” (tombal rock mound), as used by Dante in his “Comedy”. The derivation: murus-muraghe-nuraghe is debated.”
First of all, the etymology of the name NURAGHE is very much related to the Turkish word NUR meaning “light”. The Latin word “MURUS” meaning “wall”, when rearranged as “URMUS“, is a word that is made up from Turkish word “ÖRMÜŞ” meaning “it has been woven”, “it is a wall”. A wall is a structure “woven” with stones – just like the Turkish rugs that are woven with woollen or other threads. In Turkish, “to build a wall” is expressed with the term “DUVAR ÖRMEK” meaning “to weave a wall”.
Although, all Nuraghe3s are madeup of walls, linguistically, the name Nuraghe and the Latin word “murus” are not related to each other.
Turkish word ÖRÜ means “that which is woven; wall”. Turkish words ÖR and ÖRÜK are the same as the Sumerian city names UR and URUK which were the “woven” cities of the Sumerians. Thus, the Turkish words ÖR and ÖRÜK and the Sumerian city names UR and URUK are the same words but belonging to different dialects of the ancient Turanian language of Turkish!
In Sardinia, the typical nuraghe has the shape of a truncated conical tower resembling a beehive. The structure has no foundations and stands only by virtue of the weight of its stones, which may weigh as much as several tons. Some nuraghes are more than 20 metres in height, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuraghe].
The Sardinian Nuraghes are architectural monuments that, most likely, had multiple functions in ancient Sardinian life.
“A beehive tomb, also known as a tholos tomb (plural tholoi) (Greek:θόλος τάφοι, θόλοι τάφοι, “domed tombs”), is a burial structure characterized by its false dome created by the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones. The resulting structure resembles a beehive, hence the traditional English name”, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beehive_tomb].
The construction of Nuraghes is indeed a mark of excellence in ancient architecture of human genius. Their circular design with thick stone walls tapering towards the centre all around as it rises to its desired height – provides excellent durability against time and the destructiveness of human beings. Nuraghes show how well the ancient Sardinians were trained in schools for building stone structures. They were truly large and small “stone castles”. A “CASTLE” is defined as “a large building or group of buildings fortified against attack with thick walls, battlements, towers, and in many cases a moat.” The name CASTLE, rearranged as “TS-CALE”, is the anagammatized form of the Turkish expression “TAŞ KALE” meaning “stone castle”. So even this so-called “Aryan” word is made up from Turkish by way of altering and restructuring. This “castle” structure is clearly visible in the buildup of the ancient Sardinian Nuraghes and Su Nuraxi. Even the so-called Greek saying θόλος τάφοι, θόλοι τάφοι, “domed tombs” is fabricated from
Turkish as follows:
The Greek term “THOLOS TAPHOI”, rearranged as “OLO-TSH THPA-OI”, (where the symbol H is a multi-faced letter that can be an H, or an E or an I – as required by the Greek “wordsmith” who fabricated words from Turkish), is the altered, restructured, stolen and Hellenized form of the Turkish expression “ULU TaŞ TEPE ÖY” meaning “large stone made ‘hill’ like house”. The Sardinian NURAGHES are exactly within this definition in Turkish. This definition in Turkish of the so-called Hellenic term indicates that Turkish was the universally spoken language when Greeks were fabricating “Aryan words” by breaking and rearranging Turkish words and phrases. Although they stole the ancient Turkish language to make “Greek” words, they also, and probably unknowingly, put the ancient Turkish words and phrases into a “deep freeze” so that they could later be recovered from these “Greek” words – by deciphering them as I have been doing! I want to note that while the “domed tombs” saying may apply to the Etruscan “circular and domed tombs”, in the case of the Sardinian Suraghes, this meaning is not applicable because the Sardinian Suraghes are multi-functioned ancient Turanian structures built to stand the test of time over thousands of years. They are ingenious engineering marvels built by the ancient Turanian engineers!
Turkish word ULU means “great”, TAŞ means “stone”, TEPE means “hill, head”, ÖY means “house, home”.
In the following reference citing, we learn that the Nuraghes are described by the Sardinian term “SU NURAXI” which is also the name of a particular ancient cdıty site in Sardinia:
“The archaeological site “Su Nuraxi” (Sardinian term for “The Nuraghe”) lies at the foot of the Parco della Giara, near Barumini. Nuraghes are the main type of megalithic edifice found in Sardinia, and the use of these beehive-like buildings still remains unknown. Most archaeologists assume they were used as religious temples, meeting halls, or military strongholds.”
This reference citing tells us that the presently used term NURAGHE is actually an altered and Anglicized form of the Sardinian name “SU NURAXI”. The bogus letter X in NURAXI is a replacement for GH or KH letter combinations. Thus, we can view the name SU NURAXI as “SU NURAGHI” or “SU NURAKHI”. Clearly, this form of the Sardinian name has been transliterated as “THE NURAGHE”. And hence it has been further alienated from its original Sardinan form. This observation is very important for our analysis of the name SU NURAXI as well as the name NURAGHES in general.
Turkish word SUCU (SAKA) means “people who deal with water related works”, HAN means “lord”, ER means “man”, DENİZ means “sea”. The name DENİZ HANwas the name of one of the six sons of Oguz Kagan, that is, one of the ancestor name of Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples.
The name SU NURAGHE is a complex name that represents many attributes related to these ancient Sardinian structures. These so-called “bee-hive” like Nuraghes, in one sense (concept), are just like the Turkish YURTS in Central Asia, [http://polatkaya.net/Yurt.html], which are also made up as one circular room dwelling. While YURT is a portable dwelling, Su Nuraghe is a permanent structure made in the form of a hill (tepe, baş), but made of stone. Most of the Sardinian Nuraghes are in TEPE (hill; head) form! When one searches in Google under “Nuraghe images”, we get pictures of many Nuraghes. Below are some examples of them.
I use below the Sardinian form SU NURAGHE meaning “the Nuraghe” to decipher some of the meanings in Turkish inherent in this name. These meanings are relevant to some likely functions that the Su Nurahes could have been designed for.
Possible Functions of SU NURAGHES:
a) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “SURAGHEN-U”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SURAĞIEN O” (SURAHİLER) meaning “water-bottles”. This defnition in Turkish refers to the SU NURAGHE (NURAGHES) as structures that are likened to “water bottles” and hence, indicating that possibly that they had a water related function in the water system of ancient Sardinia.
Turkish word SU means “water” and SURAHİ means “water-bottle”. These correspondences cannot be due to coincidence!
b) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “SU-NUR-AGHE”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SU-NUR AĞI” meaning “water – light web”, water-light network”. This defnition in Turkish refers to Su Nuraghes as being part of a “water” related and also “light” related network. These are two functions that some of the Su Nuraghes could have been used for.
Turkish word NUR means “light” and AĞ means “web, network”.
c) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “HAGNUR-SUE”, is a form of the Turkish expression “YAĞMUR SUYU” meaning “rain water”. Again this definition in Turkish refers to the Su Nuraghes as having a functıon related to “rain water” possibly with the collection of rain water.
In the context of “a water network”, some 7,000 Su Nuraghes of Sardinia all over the country could constitute a Sardinia-wide water network that could collect and bring water to houses.
Similarly, in the context of “the light web, the light network”, some 7,000 Su Nuraghes of Sardinia all over the country could constitute a Sardinia-wide communication network that could use light as a means of communication. Day time sun rays could be manipulated by means of mirrors or some other reflectors, and at night time torches could be used to signal from tower to tower.
Su Nuraghe could be part of a tower-to-tower communication network using light very similar to present day wireless microwave communication towers! They
could also be weather observing towers – where from the open end of the tower, the movements of clouds , their speed and direction could be told fairly accurately. This would give information about the winds which was very important for the sea going peoples. Thus, they could determine the more favourable times to sail – and where to sail.
The fact that the nuraghes of Sardinia were visible to each other also supports the view that they could be used as communication towers for passing coded messages from tower to tower. The message transmission could be either with light or with some other means. After all they were the Sea People, and when they were at sea, they would need some kind of communication between the boats of a fleet also. The fact that the towers are called SU NURAGHE which uses the Turkish term NUR meaning “light” implies that light could be used as means of communication between the towers.
Additionally, Nuraghes could be used as observation towers.
d) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “AGN-SU-UERH”, where U, V and Y are replaceble wıth each other, is a form of the Turkish expression “AKAN SU YERI” meaning “place of running water”, “place of dripping water”. This definition in Turkish implies that at least some Nuraghes had something to do with running water systems. The reference above states the presence of the ancient water supplying system, with its big underground ducts. The SU NURAGHES are stone towers that could be used to condense water from hot humid air, from morning misty air as there would always be a temperature difference between the stones of the Nuraghes and the surrounding air. Similarly, the rain water falling on the Nuraghes could be collected in the bottom center of the nuraghe from which a conduit would carry the distilled water to a nearby water collection point.
The Turkish term “AKAN SU” means not only the “running (flowing) water” in conduits, channels or rivers, but also the “dripping water” from the ceiling. The Nuraghes are made with heavy stones interlaced on top of each other. This would leave a lot of space between the stones through which some air movement (draft) would occur. Additionally, since some nuraghes were built like chimneys with their upper end being open, there would be an updraft as well. Open holes on the walls of the Nuraghe towers could draw in the surrounding air and let it out through the chimney, the moisture of the air would condense and the water from the stones could drip to a central point at the bottom. Thus the system could possibly be a continuous water condensing system from the air. So, although this description may be adventurous thinking on my part, it certainly is a possibility in the hands of a “group of Sea People” who studied all aspects of water in their natural environment.
e) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “ARH-GN-SU-UE”, is a form of the Turkish expression “ARI aKaN SU ÖYI” meaning “house of clean running water”. This definition in Turkish implies some function involving purified running water.
Turkish word ARI means “pure, clean”, AKAN means “flowing, dripping”, SU means “water”, ÖY (EV) means “house, home”.
f) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “SU-GEHAN-UR”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SU ÇIKAN YeR” (GÖZE, KAYNAK, PINAR, BULAK, KUYU) meaning “place where water comes out of the ground”. This again implies that Su Nuraghes were water related places.
Turkish word ÇIKAN means “things that appear”, YER means “place”, GÖZE means “water spring”, KAYNAK means “water spring”, BULAK means “water spring”, PINAR means “fountain”, KUYU “water well”.
g) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GAUNR-SU-EH”, is a form of the Turkish expression means “GAYNaR SU Evi” (GÖZE) meaning “boiling water house”, “bubbling hot water house”, “bubbling hot water spring”. This definition in Turkish implies some function for Su Nuraghe involving generating “hot water” probably from “hot water springs” from the ground or by means of “sun” energy. These “SU NURAGHE” houses (or stations) could act like a relaying stations for hot or cold water to be transported from place to place and finally to houses in villages.
Turkish word GAYNAR means “hot; hot water; hot water from ground”, SU means “water”.
This function of “SU NURAGHE” is feasible due to the fact that Sardinia is known for its hot waters springs bubbling out of the ground at 40 to 68 degrees C. Ancient Sardinians being the “water peoples” could have utilized their knowledge of “SU NURAGHES” to utilize these hot spring waters throughout the country by means of a Su Nuraghe network using thousands of Su Nuraghes. In this context, see the online internet site information at url
“The San Saturnine hot springs in Bennett in the centre of Sardinia have been relaxing and curing folk for a thousand years or more; in Roman times they were known as Aquae Lesitanae. The sulphurous waters, bubble out at 40 degrees C and are used to treat of different ailments, as well as for beauty enhancement [apparently].
Another ancient Roman spa at Fordongianus sits around a big rectangular swimming area and is both visually and historically interesting, with water at 54°C spouting from a lion’s head, many Roman relics around and a sophisticated water delivery system.
The baths of Santa Maria Is Aquas, located a few kilometres from Sardara town, have two spa resorts equipped with large pools offering beauty and therapy programmes, even in winter.
The alkaline thermal waters that pour from five springs at a temperature ranging from 50 to 68C were visited even back in the Bronze Age, as well as by Phoenicians and Romans. The present baths were built in the 19th century. “
h) The so-called Latin name AQUAE LESITANAE, rearranged as “AQAN-ELE-SU-AEITA”, is the altered and anagrammatized form of the Turkish expression “AKAN ILI SU ÖyITI” meaning “it is running warm water house”.
Again this Turkish definition inherent in the Latin name AQUAE LESITANAE, is very much in line with its function as defined in the above given citing. We also note that the Romanized term AQUAE, meaning “water”, gets it meaning from the Turkish word “SU” but in a totally confused way.
Alternatively, the so-called Latin name AQUAE LESITANAE, rearranged as “UAA-ELEQ-ISETAN”, is the altered and anagrammatized form of the Turkish expression “ÖYÜ ILIK ISITAN” meaning “that which pleasantly warms the house”.
Turkish word ILI (ILIK) means “warm, with medium heat”, ISITAN means “that which warms up”, ÖYÜ means “the house”.
Let us see another similar “Latin” word. The Latin words “aquator” or “aquatoris” mean “water-carrier/bearer”, “one who fetches water”.
i) This Latin word AQUATORIS, rearranged letter-by-letter as “SU-QATARI-O”, is the anagrammatized form of the Turkish expression “SU GETIRI O” meaning “it brings water”, “it fethches water”, “it is water carrier”. So, this “Indo-European” word is nothing but an altered, restructured and Romanized Turkish expression, just like all of the other so-called “Indo-European” languages which have anagrammatized their words from the mother/father language of Turkish.
Turkish word SU means “water”, “GETIR” means “bring”, “GETIRI” means “he/she/it who brings”, O means “he/she/it”.
j) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GAR-SU-HUNE”, is a form of the Turkish expression “GAR SU HUNİ” meaning “the collector of snow water”. This definition in Turkish implies a function of the Su Nuraghe involving “gathering the snow water” – which is a possibility.
SUN and Sky related meanings and functions:
k) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GUNESH-UAR”, is a form of the Turkish expression “GÜNEŞ YERİ” (GÜN IŞI YERİ) meaning “place of sun light”. This defnition in Turkish, in one concept, seems to refer to the Nuraghes as a symbol of the sun and the sunlight. The builders of these monuments were themselves “sun worshipping” people. Similar to this, the so-called “obelisks” of ancient Masar (Misir, “Egypt”) were also a symbol of the Sun God Ra.
l) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GUN-ESH-UAR”, is a form of the Turkish expression “GÜN ISI YERi” meaning “place of sun’s heat”. This definition in Turkish implies that the heat of the sun is being collected at Su Nuraghes probably to heat water over a network of thousands of Su Nuraghes throughout the Sardinian country. The black stones of the Su Nuraghes would absorb the heat of the sun and retain it for a long time after the sun went down – while reheating the water that was being transfered from place to place through underground conduits.
Alternatively, it is a form of the Turkish expression “GÜN IŞI YERI) meaning “place of sunlight”. This definition in Turkish implies some function involving “sunlight”. Heat of sunlight can be absorbed not only by the stones of the Su Nuraghe buildings but sunlight can also come into the Su Nuraghe through the built in chimney, that is, a large opening at the top.
It must also be noted that the single Su Nuraghe is a “Pantheon” like construction having a “dome” with an “Oculus” at the top and with an entrance. The Latin term “OCULUS” is a word that has been fabricated from Turkish expression “ULU GÖZ” meaning “great eye”. The “OCULUS“, that is, the “ULUGÖZ”, is a symbol of the sun in the sky-dome and of the sunlight that comes in through that opening (i.e., the sun) in the dome and which lights up the inside of the dome (i.e., the earth). In this case, it is the sunlight coming through the opening at the top (TEPE) of the Su Nuraghe. The Pantheon personifies the sky dome and the sun shining through it and lighting up the earth. In ancient Sardinian villages, even the houses were made cicular – probably with an opening at the top of the building. These remind us of the Turanian “YURTS” in Central Asia – which are also one-room circular houses with a central opening in its dome.
DONE UP TO HERE Dec 4, 2011
m) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GUN-SURAHE”, is a form of the Turkish expression “ GÜN SÜRAHI” meaning “sun water-bottle”. Turkish word SÜRAHI means “water bottle”(a water holding decanter). A “Su Nuraghi” building by way of its shape resembles a Turkish “sürahi”. Again this definition in Turkish implies a function of the Su Nuraghe being related to capturing the heat and/or the light of the “sun” and storing it for heating in a system of “running water”.
It seems that a “Su Nuraghi” shaped house, with such thick stone walls, in ancient Sardinia, would be rather a warm house in winters and a cool house in the hot summers of this Mediterranean island.
n) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “ESHU-GURAN”, is a form of the Turkish expression “IŞU GÖREN” meaning “that which sees light”. This definition in Turkish refers to the Su Nuraghe as being a structure that can be used to observe “light”, such as, observing the sky, stars, the sun and even communication signalling between the Su Nuraghes.
This also implies that the Nuraghes were used in an observation service. That service could be the observation of the “sky” during day time as well as night. The Nuraghes seem to have an opening at the top of each tower (BETILE) see Figure 1. The inside appearance of this Nuraghe reminds me of the sky observatories of Central Asia, particularly, the one of Ulug Bey Observatory.
If we imagine Figure 2 above, being on top of Figure 4 and constituting a complete Su Nurage in its original form, the construction could resemble an astronomical observation tower. The opening at the top would pass in front of a band of the sky as the earth turns around itself. Some kind of image collecting and displaying means could display into the bowl-like object in the bottom middle and this would enable those who sit around it to observe parts of the sky in a dark chamber during the night. Even in the day time, they could oberve the clouds passing by for meteorology purposes. Many of these being scattered around the country could make up a network of observation towers (Nuraghes) which has embedded in it the Turkish expressiom “NUR AGI” meaning “light network” or “IŞI GUREN” meaning “that which sees light”. These embedded Turkish sayings could be an indication of one of the many functions of this Nuraghe network.
Even the name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “ANU-GURESH”, is from the Turkish expression “ANU GÖRÜŞ” (GÖKÜ GÖRÜŞ) meaning “seeing the sky; an observatory; a watch tower”. This implies that at least some of these Nuraghes were used as Sky observatories in studying the heavens. Turkish word AN (GÖK) means “sky”, ANI (ANU, GÖKÜ) means “the sky; the sky-God (as in Sumerian ANU), GÖR means “see”, GÖRÜŞ means “seeing”.
o) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GUA-SU-ERHN”, or “GUU-SA-ERHN” is a form of the Turkish expression “GUyU SU yEREN” (KUYU SU YERLERI) meaning “well-water places”. This definition in Turkish implies a function of being protected “well” sites for underground waters. In fact we see this function in the Sardinian “SU TEMPIESU” constructions also. This I will analyze separately in Part-4 of this study.
p) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “SENUR-AGHU”, is a form of the Turkish expression “SINUR AĞI” (SINIR AĞI, SINIR ARA DIREKLERI) meaning “border web”, “border markers”, “boundary markers”. This definition in Turkish reminds us of the so-called “KUDURRU” border stones by the ancient Turanian KASSITES in the Middle East. Possibly, some of the Nuraghes could have been used as boundary markers as well between the city states of ancient Sardinia- as there are so many of them.
FIRE related meanings:
r) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “NAR-USHEGU”, is a form of the Turkish expression “NAR OCAGI” (ATAŞ OCAGI) meaning “glowing fire hearth”. This definition implies that at least some of these Su Nuraghes may have been used as a “fire hearth” for metal smelting.
Even the name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “GUR-HANESU”, is from the Turkish expression “KOR HANESİ” (KOR EVİ, ATAŞ EVİ, FIRIN) meaning “house of fire, furnace”. This also implies that some strong fire was used at least in some of these Nuraghe sites. Turkish word KOR means “glowing fire”, HANE (HAN) means “house, place; palace”, HANESİ means “the house, the place; the palace”.
This is also verified when we decipher the name NURAGHE in the form of “NAR-UGHE”, we find that it is from the Turkish expression “NAR ÖYÜ” (KOR EVİ, ATAŞ EVİ, FIRIN) meaning “house of glowing fire, furnace”. Turkish word NAR means “glowing fire; pomegranate”, ÖY (EV) means “house, home; a place to stay”.
Ancient Turanians were metallurgists and therefore they were known as “DEMIRGI” meaning “blacksmith”. See my paper at url
“Prof. Kitto, while writing about the country life of “ancient Greece”, writes:
Of specialized trades we hear of only two, the trades of the smith and the potter. These were “DEMIOURGOI“, ‘men who work for the populace’, not themselves consuming the product of their own toil. The demiourgos is the craftsman: in Plato, the Creator: hence Demirurge in Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound. It is interesting to notice that these two are the only crafts which, in Greek, have divine exponents. Hephaestus (Vulcan) the smith, and Prometheus, also a fire-god, but in Attic cult the god of the potters.” [Kitto, p. 40-41].
And also see my paper at url http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/Polat_Kaya/message/535.
So it is very probable that the ancient Sardinans used some of these Nuraghes as metal smelting hearths!
School Related meanings:
s) The name SU NURAGHE, rearranged as “NUR-USHAGE”, is a form of the Turkish expression “NUR OCAGI” (BILGI OCAGI) meaning “hearth of enlightening”, “house of learning”. This definition implies that at least some of these Su Nuraghes were part of a learning system. For example, if a Nuraghe was used as a metal smelting furnace, then that Nuraghe would also be an excellent place for on the job learning for smelting apprentices.
From all of these explanations, I fınd that the name SU NURAGHE, is first of all a signature name that identifies the ancient Sea people of Sardinia with the Turanian SAKA Turks who were also named as Pelasgians (‘Pelasgoi’ by Greeks) in Ancient times. Additionally, the different decipherments of the name “Su Nuraghe” provide for us meanings in Turkish that are descriptive of the possible functions of these very well engineered structures of the ancient Sardinians. It appears that they were structures with multi-purpose functions as I defined them above. These various possible functions are all described in Turkish with expressions embedded in the name SU NURAGHE.
The ancient Masarians (the so-called “Egyptians”) knew the power of words and for that reason they paid extreme importance to them. We see this power of words in Turkish as we decipher the name Su Nuraghe. This is what I tried to show in this paper. Clearly, words have information storage capacity in Turkish related to the people to whom they belong and to the functions that the words are designed to represent. These stored meanings in Turkish are kept for a long time.
With best wishes to all,