The most ancient history of Bulgars – 1

0
1033

Chapter 2. Idel during the reign of Hons’ Khans (378 – 453 AD)

The son of the Hons’ Kan Alyp-bi with the corps of Bulgars and Hons defeated the Sadimians and forced them to run to Altyn Bash and Rum. Then Alyp-bi with the Bulgars, who suffered many exertions from the Rumians in Azerbaijan, crossed the Sula and near the city of Dere defeated the 80-thousand Rumian army. The Rumian Kan Balyn fled to his palace but was surrounded and burned by Hons who dealt with the leaders of enemies in this fashion.

When the palace burned down, Alyp-bi rode through the ruins and found the imperial crown. He took it and brought it to his father, who called himself Kan, but during the feast in honour of the victory, he suddenly died. Alyp-bi became the Kan of the Hon state formed in the Saklan, and in due time was buried on the mountain Kuyan-Tau or Kuk-Kuyan.

Before his death Kan Dere, as he was also called, ordered to put on his tomb a huge tamga of the clan Dulo, ” Baltavar”. And it looks like this: Ψ, where T is for the axe, and W is for bow. These arms were the Bulgars’ symbols of the Khan power. The Uruses, who esteemed Kan- Dere him for the defeat of the Sadimian enemies, settled at his burial place,  and formed the settlement Askal. Bulgars also revered Alyp-bi because during his time they became a ruling tribe in the Hons’ state. Soon the Hon part integrated with the Bulgar tribe, with the name of Bulgars and the Türkic language of Hons. The main clans of the Bulgars were called Erdim, Bakil or Boyandur, Seber, Agathir, Kharka, Utig’s, Kimmer…

The grandson of Alyp-bi, the son of Aibat, Kan Atillé Aibat with a nickname Audan (Audon) Dulo, went against the Almans and Farangs because their Khan poisoned his wife, the sister of the Kan Atillé. Defeating the strongest Almanian tribe Galidj so that the part of it fled by the Kuk Dingez sea to the islands Sadum and Galidj, Atillé besieged at night the capital of Farangs, the Altyn Bash. It received its name due to the golden domes of the houses. But in the morning the sun ascended, and the shine of the golden roofs blinded Bulgars. The frightened Bulgars fled, not looking at the road, and their influence after that declined. Atillé was called Myshdauly by the Ulchians, he died in the land of the Almans during the retreat,  and the country fell apart.

Three sons of Atillé, three brothers Illak, Tingiz and Bel-Kermek, together with Bulgars and Ulchians fortified in the camp against the Farangs, but were defeated. Illak fell in the fight, but Tingiz and Bel-Kermek with their Bulgars received the freedom to leave the camp. They went to the mouth of the Buri-chai and on the way lost Tingiz, killed in an ambush by the Galidjians. While breaking through this ambush Bel-Kermek for the first time ordered to raise as a flag the red banner of Ases with a half-moon on the staff. Bel-Kermek started the line of the Bulgarian Khans called either Kans or Baltavars, for the word ” Baltavar” acquired the meaning “leader”.

Chapter 3. Time of Bulgarian Baltavars (453 – ca 683 AD)

Bel-Kermek called the place of the Bulgar’s settlement between the mouth of Buri-chai and Djalda, where were the Rumian cities, Altynoba, in memory of the Altyn Bash’s siege. The abandoned camp then became a city which the local Ulchians called Galidj, and the Bulgars called “Uchuly” (Uch-Ogly, “[City] of [Atillé] Three Sons”).

After Bel-Kermek his son Djurash Masgut was the Baltavar of Bulgars, and after him his son Tatra, and after him his son Boyan-Chelbir, and after him his son Tubdjak, and after him his senior son Arbuga Ürgan, and after him his younger brother Alburi…

During Bel-Kermek time Sabars invaded the Saklan, Bulgars, in the Saklanian language, called them Sabans. From them came our language, which the Persians incorrectly call Kypchak, for Kypchaks took it from the Kyrgyzes, and in addition quite distorted it. The Sabans who remained in the Turan began more often be called Badjanaks. Their language, as I already wrote, became gradually similar to the language of the Uzes or Türkmen, and the Almighty inspired Michael to make this language our written language, along with the Arabic. The Kashans called it Bulgarian Türki, and the Türkmens called it ”Turan Tele”…

The Avars, the last splinter of the Hons still remaining in the Hin, expelled the Sabars from the Jeti-Su, their native land. But in the Saklan these refugees did not act any better than their persecutors and thrashed many Hons’ clans. They drove a part of the local Hons to the Kaf mountains, where they formed the Khondjak Beilyk. The other Sabars drove another part of the Hons to the Djurash, where they had to join the Bulgars…

The Murdases, who hated the Hons, joined with the Sabars and wanted to finish off the Hons and Bulgars who accepted them, but Bel-Kermek became a king with the Bek of Masguts, and as Murdases were frightful of the Masguts, he thus saved his people from the destruction…

The son Djurash, nicknamed Masgut, of Bel-Kermek from the daughter of the Masgutian Bek, served to one or another Sabarian Beks, and for it he received the lands between the Sula and Djalda… Being naturally kind, he ransomed from the Sabars a hundred of the Hons’ biys and a multitude of their people and joined them to the Bulgars under the name of Sürbiys ( Serbiys)…

The Masgut’s son Tatra became famous for the successful attacks on the Rum which he made with the help of his subject Ulchians…

During the reign of the Tatra’s son Boyan-Chelbir, the Avars, expelled by the Khazarian Türks, came to the Saklan. The Sabars, panic-stricken of them, quieted down, and our Bulgars, on the contrary, raised their heads… . Boyan-Chelbir be-fraternized with the Avarian Khakan Tubdjak and gave his son the name Tubdjak, and the Khakan took the name Boyan. After the Avars came their tormentors, the Khazarian Türks, but in a fierce battle the Bulgars, together with the Avars, repelled them from the Sula and Buri-chai.

The Türks retreated, but took a part of the Djalda Bulgars and allowed them to form in the Djurash the Burdjan Beilyk for the protection of their possessions from the south. In fact, the Bulgars since the time of the Kan- Dere battle, were considered the most skilful and brave soldiers in the world. These Bulgars, headed by the Boyan-Chelbir’s senior son Atras, therefore began to be called Burdjanians.

The western Bulgars of Boyan-Chelbir, remaining the subjects of Avarian Khakans, began to be called Kara-Bulgars, that is the western, instead of the “black” as the Türks normally use. In fact, the Bulgars called the West ” Kara”, the East – ” Ak”, the North – ” Kuk”, and the south – ” Sara” or “Sary”…

The Boyan-Chelbir son Tubdjak went to war with the Rum and the Ulchians, who were subordinated to the Rum, on the side of the Avars. While the Avars ruthlessly killed the Ulchians, the Bulgarian Baltavar was sparing them and moved up to two hundred thousand of them from the Rum to his possessions. These Bulgarian Ulchis began to be called Anchians (Anchylar), that is the “boundary”, “frontier people”, as they were settled on the northern boundaries of the Kara-Bulgar Beilyk, in the Uchuly and by the Buri-chai. The Avarian Khakan the, in the beginning, looked at it with irritation, but when under an order of Tubdjak the Anchis made a few hundred boats and successfully battled on them with the Rums, he softened and left them alone…

In 605 AD Tubdjak died, having ruled for 15 years, leaving to his senior son Bu-Ürgan an extensive Beilyk from Uchuly to the river Ak-su and from Kuk-Kuyantau to Djalda. But very soon the new Kara-Bulgar Baltavar had bad luck. The Avarian Khakan besieged one Rumian city, and, as always, in the first attack went the Anchians, and behind them were the Bulgars.

When the Khakan decided that the forces of the defenders were defeated, he ordered Bulgars to let the Avars to go first. But the Rums defeated the Avars, and in a fury, the Khakan accused Bu-Ürgan of the defeat and ordered to raise to the throne of the Kara-Bulgar Baltavars the Tubdjak’s younger son, Alburi. The displaced Bu-Ürgan left with a part of the Bulgars to the Rumian part of the Djalda and enlisted to the service of the local Rums. He possessed such an unusual might that he was called Ar-Buga.

His stint in the Rumian service was short, for the power of the Avarian Khakan weakened soon after his defeats, and he could return to his favourite river Buga-Idel. The Baltavar circled between the rivers Burat and Buga-Idel, and had headquarters in the aul Kashan. Alburi’s senior son Kurbat cycled between the Saklanian aul Askal by the Buri-chai, and the aul Kharka by the Ak-su and had his headquarters an the aul Baltavar…

In 618 year the growing insane Avarian Khakan summoned Alburi as if for the negotiations and treacherously executed him in his encampment for the attack of the Anchians upon the Avars. In reality, the Avars themselves attacked the Galidjian Ulchians and stole their cattle. Some Avars were killed by the Anchians resisting robbery, and that allowed the Avarian sardar to pretend to be a victim of the Ulchian attacks… Before the trip of Alburi to the Khakan, Bu-Ürgan saw in a dream a piece of red cloth in which the Ases wrapped the diseased, and the tip of a spear.

Waking up in anxiety, he told his brother: ”Tangra made me a boyar and showed me in a dream the signs of misfortune: a red cloth for the diseased and a tip of a spear, on which are impaled the heads of the killed. It means that your death awaits you in the Khakan camp. Do not go there!” Alburi did not listen to him and perished. And people recognized Bu-Ürgan as a boyar or askal, that is the prophet…

When the message about the murder reached Bulgars, Bu-Ürgan went to Rum and declared there that Kara-Bulgars break off any relation with the Avars and are ready to conclude a union with the Rum against them. The pleased Rumian Kan immediately recognized the Bek as an independent Kara-Bulgar Baltavar and concluded a union with him… When Ar-Buga returned to his people, the biys wanted to raise him immediately to the Bulgarian throne. But Bu-Ürgan valued the status of the boyar more than the title of the Kan and said: ”the people, certainly, are free to choose their rulers, but not from the boyars who are chosen by Tangri…” Following his advice, the Bulgars elected Kurbat, with a nickname Bashtu, the son of Alburi, as the Baltavar of Bulgars, and he immediately began to prepare for the war with the Avars.

In 620 under Kurbat’s order, his younger brother Shambat erected, in the place of aul Askal on the mountains Kuyantau (Jack Rabbit mountain- Translator’s Note), a city Bashtu and set out from it in the head of a large unit of Bulgars, Anchians and Saklans- Ruses against the enemy. He managed to quickly defeat the Avars and capture their country. In it he was helped by the local Ulchians, and also by the Bashkorts who called themselves “Honturchy” (Honturchies) and were unhappy with the reign of the Avarian Khakan. But after this Shambat proclaimed himself an independent ruler, and named the state Duloba, that is” Pasture Dulo”. Kurbat, upon learning about it, ordered his brother to return to his service, but that refused and received from Bashtu a moniker ” Kyi” (“Cut off”, “Separated”).

Shambat ruled in Duloba for thirty-three years and became glorious for his victories over Farangs and Almanes. To serve under his banners came Artes, and Bailaks, and Galidjians, and Avarian Ulchians, and Saklans, and Honturchies. But at the end he was defeated by Farangs and returned to the Kurbat service. The Baltavar ordered Shambat to take the old post of the governor of Bashtu…

The city dwellers loved him so that they called the citadel of Bashtu by his name, “Shambat”, and the whole city by his nickname “Kyi”. And now the Anchians call Bashtu city “Kyi”…

While Shambat was fighting in the Duloba, Kurbat was tirelessly expanding the limits of Ak Bulgar Yorty. Taking advantage of the upheaval in the Turanian Horde, he purged the Khazarian Türks from the Djurash, and became the ruler of everything between the Sula and Idel. Aspiring to further humiliate the defeated Avarian and Turanian rulers, Kurbat, in addition to the title of Kan, also takes their title of Khakan… .

The Baltavar seasonal route was between the city of Bandja on the Azak sea and the encampment in the Khorysdan, which was also called Batavyl, that is the princely headquarters… On the return way the Khakan always stopped by the camps Tiganak and Baltavar and the burial place of Bu-Ürgan located in a day of travel from them. And the mother of this well-known boyar clan was from the Ürganian clan of the Hon tribe of Khots or Khotrag’s.

And in the antiquity this tribe was called Sohot, or, in the Serbiyan, Khol, but then the word changed the form to Khot or Khotrag. And from all the Hons’ tribes only the tribe of Utig’s or Utyak could compete in strength and number with the Khotrags. And after the route of the Hons by the Chins, Türks and Serbiys, during the Kan Tigan with a nickname Hin-Batyr, the Khot and Utigs disperced in different directions. The Khots settled by the river Sob or Sobol (Subyl), by its right inflow Baigul and her left inflows Sasy-Idel and Tora-su. And the Sobol runs into the Chulman sea. The Kar dingez and Kara dingez are only the gulfs of this enormous sea.

The name of the great river Sobol gave the descendants of Hots, who settled in its area and, led by biy Tuba, together with Kara-Oimeks, entered the State in the reign of Kolyn and his son Anbal. And as from there were brought the best martens in the world, they also received from us the name “Sobol”.

However, on the origin of the name for the sables, Abdallah biné Bashtu also told this history.

During Baltavar Alyp-biy, the grandfather of Aibat, a Bulgarian merchant Toima with a nickname Tur went to the land of Bashkorts also called Sebers. Having visited there, he went further to the north and came to the country of Urs. And now the Urs live at the end of the Earth, on the coast of the Chulman sea, but long ago they lived in the province Tubdjak and in the south of the province Ur. And a part of Sebers occupied their lands and pushed them aside to the north, but gave them a name ” Ura”, which is misleading to many.

The Urs were very timid, for all their neighbours offended them, but their customs forbade them to spill human blood. Therefore all Urs during the trade left their goods under a sacred tree and hid in thickets, and the visitor merchants put their goods against theirs. If the Urs, after the departure of the merchants, took the imported things, the transaction was considered as done and the merchants could take the Urian goods… To the arrival of Tur-Toima the Urs could prepare only selected sables.

The merchant, besides the goods necessary in the north, brought them magnificent Rumian and Persian clothes and utensils. The Urs took away all this and were so happy with the acquisition and were so afraid to offend the merchant with the poor goods, that their aksakal added some sables and bravely remained visible at some distance from the tree. But Toima remained very pleased with the sables and, driving off, waved the pelts and friendly shouted to the old man shivering from excitement: ”Sai byl!” The Urs thought that ”sai byl” or as they pronounced this word “sobol” or “tobol”, in Bulgarian meant “sable” and from that time offered sables to the visitor merchants as the most valuable goods and called them “sobol”.

And we reportedly began to call sables by the word “Sobol”, and through us the Ulchis, Almans, Frangs and Altyn Bashes. This story is very entertaining, but Abdallah tebir was known for the weakness to tall stories and re-telling of other’s fantasies, and consequently, we cannot completely trust his words.

But with all this, Abdallah also gave true facts. So, the merchant Tuimas said that Toima was his real ancestor who in his travels reached the place of the future auls Menhaz and Surhot. When Toima died, the Seber biy Eseg (Esek), in respect for the Hon Kan, ordered to bury him on the right bank of Agidel, opposite his northern encampment. And the small river on which the merchant was stricken by death, from that time began to be called Toima-su. Also in memory of him, one of the Urian clans took the name Toima…

And the Utigs settled to the west of Hots, between the Idel and Agidel. Here they mixed up with the Murdases and learned from them the agricultural skills. The area and the river, flowing there, they called Hinel in memory of their former residence. And later the Hinel transformed into Kinel…

Soon after that settling, the former commander of Hin-Batyr, Kama-Tarkhan, became the Utig’s Khan and subdued all neighbouring Arian tribes and Hots. He called the state “Atil”. His descendants ruled here for three hundred years, and when Bulümar or Bulümbar with their Hons came to Bulyar, they gave to him… their state… . Bulümbar called Atil Bakil or Bulyar and ruled here for thirty years. He would rule Bulyar for longer, but there came a terrible winter and after it the famine.

Almost all cattle and many people perished. Wishing to prevent the demise of all people, Bulümbar led the people further to the West. In their carts, the Hons harnessed the Murdasian women, for the rumour went that it was exactly them who with their magic caused first a severe winter, and then a drought.

Together with Hons left many Khots’s and Utigs’s, and gave many rivers and districts in the Kara-Bulgar of the names of their native land: Bozauly, Samar, Tiganak, Orel, Agidel, Hingul and others.. And the Hons or Hols who stayed in the Hin eventually were subordinated by the Serbiys and took their name. The Menkhol tribe and its clan Tingiz or Chingiz come from these Hons…

Kurbat’s senior son Bat-Boyan revolved between Djalda and the middle course of Buga-Idel, one part of his people went up the left bank of the river, and the other on the right… .

The youngest son of Kurbat, Atilkesé with nickname Asparukh revolved between the Burdjan and Bekhtash, and the Utigs’s and Murdases also submitted to him. His main encampment was in the city of Burdjan in the south of Djurash. He was very amicable with his uncle Shambat, the sitting Ulugbek of the Bashtu, surrounded by both loyal Bulgarian Saklanian biys and the Anchian boyars. This attachment was not very much pleasant to Kurbat, who always suspected his brother in readiness for treason, so Atilkesé received the most distant ulus from the Kyi… .

While such Khakan was alive, the country was peaceful. But when in the 660 AD he was stricken by the death, Shambat with support from Atilkese raised in arms against the new Khakan Bat-Boyan with the purpose of capturing the throne. They let him to rule more or less quietly for only three years, and then began an open war against him. As Kurbat before death forbade the Bulgars to battle each other, Shambat attacked the Kan with the Ak-Balynian Ulchians and Saklan-Uruses, and Atilkese with Murdases, Masguts, Türks and a hired detachment of Türkmens…

War went for a few years. Atilkesé managed to crush the Bat-Boyan’s Sabans, then he crushed As-Bandja and together with Shambat besieged Khakan in Djalda. With this the Bek people, especially Murdases, killed many Bulgars of the Kan. It caused a big hostility between the black Bulgars and this Saklanian tribe. The Khakan complained Atilkesé of the actions of his people, but he sarcastically replied: ” Murdases could not distinguish between your Bulgars and Sabans, they in fact speak the same Sabanian language… .”

Shambat with the support of Atilkesé besieged Djalda for five years and was taken in the other part of the Saklan-Bulgarian state as Khakan.

In the heat of this siege the strengthened again Türkic Khakans attacked Saklan across Agidel. It is said that across the river from Türkistan then came 150 thousand of Kumans, Türkmen Kuk-Oguzes and Kyrgyzes, united by the name of Hazar, the founder of the Türkic state. Shambat with Atilkesé rushed towards the enemy but were defeated and fled with a part of their forces to Bashtu.

This route happened because during the fight the Djurashian Türks, Murdases and Utigs’s switched to the side of the Khazars, and Serbiys fled to the north and hid in the Sura woods. Khazars received many captured Burdjan Bulgars whom they forced to fight on their side.

The Djalda Bulgars were so angered on the others that they immediately wanted to finish off the defeated fellow tribesmen in the Bashtu. But noble Bat-Boyan did not allow bad feelings and led Kimmerians against Khazars. The opponents met on the river which we called Almysh, and Kyrgyzes called Kelmes, and Khakan Bat-Boyan suggested to the leader of Khazars Kalga to return the territory of the Saklan illegally taken by him.

In reply, Kalga ordered his forces to ford the small river and flared a fierce fight. Tangra helped his slaves and forced the Burdjan leader Khumyk to join his fellow tribesmen, after which the Bulgars, with the support of heroic Anchians, managed to gain a full victory. From both sides fell 90 thousand soldiers, of which 50 thousand were Khazars, and Kalga was hacked by Khumyk, and from that time the Khazars called the small river Almysh a “Kalga”.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here