The most ancient history of Bulgars – 1

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Chapter 4. Reign of Kara-Bulgarian Beks (683 – 855 AD)

The Khazars retreated a little, and when Bat-Boyan drew near them again, the new Khakan Kaban, the nephew of the old Khakan, offered him a peace with the following provisions: the Khazars would allow the dynasty of Bat-Boyan to keep the Kara-Bulgarian and Bulyarian parts of the Saklan, and for Khumyk clan to keep the Burdjan, in return to which Baltavars give up the titles of the Khakan and Kan, concede to the Türks the Saklanian steppes between Lower Shir and Djaik, and give Khazars for external wars a part of their soldiers or a payout tribute for the non-participation.

Khumyk agreed and drove off to Burdjan, but Bat-Boyan decided to think it over and concluded only an armistice with Khazars. However, on the return way, he found out that in his absence Shambat and Atilkesé occupied his Djalda and were coming against him. The Khakan became furious, unusual for him. Intoxicate by this feeling he went to Kaban and concluded offered to him peace. When the texts were sealed, the Khazarian Khakan embraced Bat-Boyan and said emotionally: ”We have one God Tangra, one clan and one Türkic language…

Therefore I think you my kin and brother. Besides I feel to be your debtor, for your people finished off the hated Kalga. Therefore I shall help you to become the ruler in your own possessions”.

They went together to Kara-Bulgar. When they were at the aul Kharka, Shambat with Atilkesé left Djalda out of fear to be cornered there and raced toward the allies. When they came close, the Bat-Boyan offered them to submit to him without a fight. They only laughed and recklessly rushed to fight…

Kaban did not allow Baltavar to enter the battle. Throwing Türkmen towards the rebels, he with Kyrgyzes went around the battlefield, struck them in the rear and achieved a victory. Shambat and Atilkesé again hid in Bashtu. Kaban tried to take the city on the run, but Shambat’s Bulgars made a sortie under the banner of a Kharka clan and turned Khazars to a panic flight. Then Khakan left to Djurash and told Baltavar: ”Settle now your affairs yourself, I helped you as far as was able to”.

Bat-Boyan entered into negotiations with the besieged and agreed with them about a division of Kara-Bulgar. The right-bank part of the Beilyk remained under the rule of Shambat and Atilkesé, and the left-bank part went to Baltavar… The peaceable Bat-Boyan did not attempt to kick the rebels out of Bashtu by force, for he truly believed that if Tangra wishes, he will achieve it without a single shot.

And really, in two years Shambat died, and Atilkesé, not feeling sufficient support of Saklans and Anchians, preferred to leave with a part of Burdjans and Türkmens to Kashan. And it is an extremely fortified area, from three sides surrounded with the rivers Burat, Sula and Audan-su, and from the fourth by Ulagian mountains… Atilkesé stayed here as the Bek of the Bulgars, local Ulchis and Ulags – a few years with full safety.

Only the hostile actions against him by the Avars and allied with them Rums forced him to abandon this area and to leave to the Iskander mountains. There he formed a Kaganate which he called Burdjan, in memory of the former possession. His descendants, as wrote seid Yakub, took Christianity from the local Ulchians, and together with it the Ulchian language.

And it happened because Ulchian priests preached in their language and because Bulgars settled in the Ulchian houses. Only the Burdjani Kuk-Oguzes, who have not abandoned the life in the field, kept their Türkmen language…

The departure of Burdjans made Bat-Boyan the sovereign Baltavar of all Kara-Bulgar whose capital became Bashtu…

Bat-Boyan died in 690 at the age of 65 years, living five years more than his father. His son Bat-Timer or Bu-Timer, with a nickname Djurash, inherited him. Menla Abdallah tells: ”Khakan Kaban so loved Bat-Boyan that invited him and Bu-Ürgan grandson Humyk to be present at a ceremony of tightening a rope around his neck during the rite of asking Tangra about the time and character of his reign.

When came a message from Bashtu about the death of Bat-Boyan, Kaban wilted at once and soon died of distress. To the power came an evil son of Kalgi, Aibat. His wife was one Bukhara Jewess, but she was really ugly and he decided to marry a beautiful daughter of the Kashek’s Bek… The Bek, familiar with the Bulgarian customs, offered the Khakan to fight with him for his daughter.

Spiteful but cowardly Aibat was scared and asked Bu-Timer to fight with the Kashek’s Bek for him. The Baltavar won the duel with the bogatyr Bek, but after that his daughter declared suddenly: ”I shall marry the real winner”. Then Aibat ordered to lead her to him by force. However, when the servants of the Khakan came for her, she committed suicide…

Aibat then summoned Bu-Timer and told him: ”The bride you won for me died. If you are a person of honour you will bring me a Gurdjian princess”. The Baltavar, to whom the honor was more precious than life, had to go to Gurgja. He managed to defeat the Gurdjian Bek with the help of the local Hons living in a distinct Khondjak beylik, and to capture his daughter. But on the return way a son of Bek Djuhman ambushed Bulgars, trying to free his sister.

He managed to break through to the Bika’s cart and to pull it away. Our fighters, however, managed to clobber the Gurgjians and catch up with the fugitives. Then Djukhman pulled his sabre and hacked his sister to avoid the shame of the captivity. Bu-Timer captured him and brought to the Khakan with the words: ”I’ve done everything to fulfill the promise, but her brother interfered with me”. Aibat came to fury and, blaming Baltavar for the death of the princess, ordered the servants to kill the Baltavar right there in his tent.

Actually the Khakan killed Bu-Timer in hope to get the spoils taken in Gurgja, and to seize suddenly the Kara-Bulgar. The crowd of Türks after this evil act attacked the Kara-Bulgars, but we were on the alert and in return turned the Khakan’s encampment upside down. From the zindan was let out the son of Kaban Kuk-Kuyan who immediately proclaimed himself the Khakan and finished off his uncle. The son of Bu-Timer Sulabi headed the Kara-Bulgars and received an honor to be present at the tightening of a rope around the neck of the new Khakan, and informed all about the sanction of Tangra for his 45-year reign. And Djukhman in this turmoil fled to Saklans, and from there made his way to Gurgja…

Sulabi, unlike his father, disliked the wars and tried to avoid them in every possible way. Instead, the Baltavar eagerly engaged in trading affairs and invigorated the overland and waterways going to Avaria, Artan, Rum, Djalda, Seber and Kashek. He separated the best part of Ulchians from the other Igenchis and, ordering them to bear a task of building the boats, called them subashis.

He also set up 10 djien districts and himself willingly went around them, appointing boyars there as Tarkhans and collecting the fur and product tribute. However, when Kuk-Kuyan informed him that the Gurdjian Bek started oppressing the Khondjaks in retaliation for the help Hons gave to their kins, Baltavar set off to a campaign. Our troops easily defeated the unhardened in the fights Gurgjans and seized the Djukhman again. But his grey-bearded father suddenly showed up in the Bulgarian camp and offered Sulabi to take him a prisoner in exchange for the freedom of his son.

Impressed with so strong parental love, Sulabi not only granted freedom to both the father and the son, but also be-fraternized with Djukhman and took his name. The pleased Gurdjian Bek gave a word not to oppress the Khondjaks and to pay tribute to the Khakan, and Sulabi with easy heart went back…

Kuk-Kuyan was much pleased with the success of the Baltavar and became extraordinary proud. Intoxicate by the glory, the generally mild Khakan even dared to raise a sword against the soldiers of the Islamic Sultan. But at Almighty will, punishing for his excessive arrogance, in 737 AD he was completely defeated. The come around Kuk-Kuyan decided to smooth down his fault and declared to the ghazis that he wants reconciliation with the Sultan and therefore allows his subjects to accept the true faith. Then a part of Burdjans accepted Islam so that the soldiers of the Sultan would not ruin them during the campaigns against Khazars, and Kara-Bulgars refrained because of inadvertent plunder of their trading caravan by the ghazis…

Sulabi ruled for 27 years and died in 727 AD, leaving the power to his son Avar from the Avarian wife. During his time the support of the Bulgarian power in the Kara-Bulgar, which was also called the Kara-Saklan, in opposition to the Khazarian Ak-Saklan, became the Anchis. And the Anchis, as I already noted, are a mix of the part of the Ulchians with some clans of the Uruses and Bulgars from whom they inherited a bravery. And from our Bulgars the Anchian union included many of the clans Erdim, Seber, Bakil, Agathir, Baryn and also from the others who later headed the Anchian clans… Anchis were exempted from all duties, except for the military, and those taken for service even were not allowed to marry during the service time.

However, the Anchis bore this duty with pleasure for they were aggressive and were receiving for it extensive lands in the district Bashtu and a good salary. The Anchis were in hostile relations with Uruses because those Uruses who were expelled from their tribe fled to Anchians. We called the Saklan-Uruses the Balynians as they were called by the Anchis, and then started to call so all the northern Ulchis, who were living in the woods and bogs… The language of Anchis differed from the language of Ulchis- Balyns, but nevertheless they understood each other…

In addition to the several thousand Anchis in the service of Avar, he had about one thousand of Djurashes, not including those Djurashes who worked in Baltavar smith shops and produced fine weapons and armour. And all of them, as a token of love to the ruler, called themselves Avars.

Avar, at the request of his mother, campaigned against the Farangs in support of the Avars, and helped this tribe to improve their affairs. And the Baltavar made these campaigns through the Uchuly mountains named so in the time of Shambat in memory of his three sons. They were left together with their mothers back in the Duloba when he was forced to retreat from there to the Bashtu…

In 745 AD Avar has also presented an opportunity to use the weapons inside his own country against revolting Balyns. Revolt was started by the Uruses dissatisfied with an raise of Anchis and the size of the Baltavar taxes. Balyns immediately supported this mutiny, encouraged by the arrival of the Ulchians from the island Artan.

These Ulchians were expelled by the Galidjians, but to incite fear, they called themselves Galidjians. They built on a big lake a fortress Galidj and headed the revolt… Avar defeated the Uruses. One half of them preferred to submit to the Baltavar, but another elected to flee. Some fugitives went to Galidj, but the majority of them moved to Shir where they received a name of Burtases.

Just at this time, Kuk-Kuyan died, and Bardjil, the son of Aibat and adopted son of Kuk-Kuyan became the Khazarian Khakan. The new Khakan was rather delighted to the mutiny in Kara-Bulgar and not only did not return the fugitives, but even built for them a city Urus. Precisely as much the Galidjians met Uruses hospitably and built for them on the lake another city Urus. The angry Avar sent his senior son Tat-Utjak to the north, and he completely destroyed Galidj and Urus. The scared rebels fled further away to the north, but after a while returned and renewed their settlements…

Simultaneously with the return of Tat-Utyak to Kara-Bulgar, there arrived many Sabars or Sabans, whose Beks turned out to be involved in an attempt to overthrow Bardjil. It turned out that he refused to ascend to the throne with traditional rites because of the fear to be strangled, and he declared his acceptance of the Jewish faith. He was supported by Murdases, Burtases, Kumans, Djurashes, Saklans and Kuk-Oguzes, but Kyrgyzes- Sabans voiced against it and were expelled.

The Khakan demanded that Avar returned the fugitives, but now it was Avar’s turn to take pleasure to refuse him. Angry Bardjil then ordered Burdjans-Moslems to abandon the true faith and to accept… Judaism, though he himself did not actually adhere to this false faith of the strayers. Burdjans refused and were defeated by the vindictive Khakan. Those from them who resisted were forced to flee to Bulyar…

Murdases met refugees with hostility and tried to hand them back to Bardjil. Then the Burdjans complained to Avar, and he sent to their aid his younger son Tat-Ugek. He crushed Murdases and forced them to flee to the upper flow of the Aka-Idel. There they mixed up with Ulchians creating a new Ulchian tribe of Murdases…

Burdjans and Saban that came with Tat-Ugek peacefully settled on the free lands. The Burdjans built for themselves a city which they called in honour of their leader Marduan. The Khazars altered this name to “Mardukan “… The foundation of the city occurred in the winter, during “nardugan“…

In this ceremony, its participants made a snow town and then subjected it to a symbolic storm. If “defenders“ of the town persisted, the “besiegers“ pointed to the top of a big tree and shouted:

The Sun has ascended –
Great Khan Kubar,
Mighty and brilliant-
And blinded enemies!
Khsas nardugan,
Khsas nardugan –
Be always
Our defender and the assistant!

Then the “defenders“ covered faces with hands and dropped to their knees, and the “besiegers“ occupied the “town“ and hanged up an effigy of the ”enemy Khan” on the top of a tree…

And this custom was clear Burdjian, and only the city dwellers of the Marduan, later called Bolgar, celebrated it. And the custom to call Tangri as Kubar or Suvar was purely Burdjian… Later, Ahmed ibn Fadlan… did not stand this ceremony and forced the transfer of this celebration far from the city in hope that it would complicate its organization and forces to abandon it. But Bolgars fanatically rode for many snow versts and in any icy weather for the celebration of nardugan, showing an example of the fidelity of the Bulgars to their customs…

Sabans settled east of Marduan and its small Beilyk and in the beginning submitted to it. They came with wives and children and consequently their language did not disappear, but spread. The local Utigs’s intermixed with a part of them and passed on their agricultural skills. When came Kara-Bulgars, they called the Sabanian plow Saban, but it was Utigian’s by origin…

In 759 AD, however, the peaceful life of Marduan was interrupted. Bardjil, burning with a thirst of a revenge, provoked Bashkorts against Bulyarian Burdjans, and those crossed Djaik. Sabans took to weapons, and old Mar sent messengers to Avar with the request for help. Avar again sent Tat-Ugek to Marduan and died soon after his departure, transferring the power to Tat-Utjak…

Tat-Ugek went towards Bashkorts and defeated them due to the soldiers of the strong Bashkortian tribe Esegs, called by ours Azna, Anya, or Aznak, came over to his side. The Bardjil’s son Bulan used this defeat of the Bashkorts to proclaim his father weak and subsequently to overthrew him. Seizing the power, Bulan ordered to strangle his father with a rope.

Abdallah ibn Bashtu tells, that when the murderers came to Bardjil, he said: ”I was afraid of a rope and because of this fear gave in to the temptation to betray the faith of the Almighty Almighty. And now for it at the will of Tangri I am dying of the same rope, and I deserve it! I should have thought that it is better to be raised by Tangri to the throne with a rope than to be strangled with it on the throne!”.

Esegs also proclaimed Tat-Ugek their Bek, and he formed between the rivers Sak and Sok a Beilyk Esegel. After this, in 760 AD, Tat-Ugek subjugated Marduan and renamed it Bolgar. Sabans-farmers subordinated to him, but Sabans-cattlemen left to the upper flow of the Agidel and as a token of protest against the power of the Bek called themselves Burdjans.

Esegs, as well as Kara-Bulgars of Tat-Ugek, took the Sabanian wives and very soon also began to speak in the Turanian and Kypchak dialects of the Sabans, as in their own languages… And Esegs called Tat-Ugek Beilyk “Belermey“ as it was in the territory of former Bulyar, and the Kirghiz Türks altered this name to “Besermen“, and from that time they sometimes also called the Bulgars “Besermen“. This nickname of Bulgars then adopted Kumans, and the Uruses, and the Tatars…

In 787 AD, on instigation of Bulan, Bashkorts attacked again the Besermen across the Djaik. The Bek first went towards the enemy and began to fight. But then came a message about the death of Tat-Utyak, who had nickname Sarachin, and Tat-Ugek Besermen preferred to go to Bashtu to take the Kara-Bulgarian throne. During a crossing across Idel his raft was pulled underwater in a whirlpool at the Mountain Bank, and the Bek drowned…

In 765 AD Tat-Utyak daughter from an Urusian was given for Asankul, the grandson of Kuk-Kuyan and son of Shadchin or Saksin. She gave birth to son Urus, who enjoyed a great love of the Khazarian Saklans, Kasheks and Burdjans. Abdallah ibn Michael tells that her destiny was tragic…

Bulan, intoxicate by success, attributed it… to Jewish faith and began to zealously introduce it among Türks. The Kumanian and some Türkmenian Beks accepted this false faith, and from then on the “true“ or ”White Khazars” began to be called only the Judaik Türks, and the Khazarian Türks-pagans were called ”Black Khazars”. The clan of Urus, father of the Khakan Kaban, belonged to black Khazars, but in 805 AD the dirty hands of Bulan reached him too.

Asankul flatly refused… to accept Judaism even for the looks and was brutally killed together with his father and his wife by the mad Khakan. The execution also threatened Urus, but he had time to ride away to the Bulgarian Beilyk Dima-Tarkhan ruled by Tat-Ugek’s son Tamyan under the protection of the Rum. And here were many Bulgars, who fled from the Khondjak by the river Karachai and from another Bulgarian Beilyk in Gurgjans, Buda on the river Chup-su.

And in the mouth of this river later landed with an army the Lachyn Emir Hisami, and almost drowned, for his boat flipped… As more Bulgars were from Karachai, all Dima-Tarkhan Bulgars were called Karachais. Under their the control was a part of the river Kuba, also called Kuba-Bulgar-su, but after the Kasheks became indignant with the murder of Asankul and joined Dima-Tarkhan, all Kuba fell within the limits of the Beylik.

And Karachais joked, that Tangra does not allow them to leave the banks of this river. In fact, the Bulgars came here even before the invasion of the Hons, and then, intermixing with them, a part of them went to the Khondjak to serve the Persian Padshas. And now they again returned to the old place which is considered to be one of the most blessed in the Saklan…

Aged Bulan, forgetting about the old age, went to a campaign against Kasheks and Urus. His son Ben-Amin incited his father to this, he conceived to finish off with his father during the campaign… When Bulan came to a high bank of Kuba, a bribed Ben-Amin servant clandestinely pushed him, and Khakan fell from the horse and crushed. Nobody was upset, in the opinion of the Khazars, forty-five years of the reign was enough… The Jewish priests immediately, in the field, murmured some words, and Ben-Amin became a new Khakan.

Settling comfortably in the Khazarian capital, which Bulgars in irritation called Etil, that is ”Dog City”, for quite often they called White Khazars dogs, he with the hands of his Jewish djuras began to spread everywhere… the Jewish faith and attack Dima-Tarkhan. When the Jewish Türks began cutting down sacred trees of the pagans and destroying the Burdjanian mosques, the Black Khazars, Saklans, Djurashes and Burdjans took to the weapons…

Kan-Karadjar, the son of Sarachin, ruling in the Kara-Bulgar, felt completely indifferent to this revolt because of the tense relations with Tamyan. But Urus and Tamyan actively helped the insurgents, whose battle cry was the name of Kubar. So this war received the name Kubarian or Subarian.

In the heat of the revolt Bashkortian messengers came to Ben-Amin and told him: ”We were attacked by the Badjanaks expelled from Jeti-Su by Türkmens of Khorasan, and mercilessly burn our auls. We always helped the Khazars, now you help us”. Ben-Amin mindlessly denied them an assistance, though the insurgents could not in any way threaten Itil, and the Bashkorts were completely defeated by Sabans- Badjanaks.

One part of Bashkorts fled to Oguzes and Kypchaks, another to Sasy-Idel, the right tributary of Shir, the third part to the river Baygul. But these places were famished, therefore half of the Bashkorts very soon crossed the Urals toward the Chulman-Idel and Agidel and formed here a Beilyk Bershud…

The Bashkorts who have remained by the river Baygul called the area Seber, and called themselves Baygul and Ishtyak, those who left to Bershud called themselves Sebers, and those who left to Sasy-Idel called themselves Modjars. The Modjars quickly spread their control over Murdases and Sura’s Ars and, growing stronger, began to vent their irritation on the treacherous Khazars.

When one of their detachments reached the vicinities of Itil, the younger brother of Ben-Amin, Karak, in excitement told the djuras surrounding him: ”Ben-Amin obviously is not the election of the Jewish gods, for they deprived us of their support. It is necessary to rise to the throne someone another”. The words of the prince, as testifies Abdallah ibn Bashtu, made the White Khazars think and rally around Karak. Abandoned by all and surrounded only by the enemies, Ben-Amin was quietly strangled by the village Bel-Imen, and his Jewish priests were buried alive in his tomb.

Not losing time and disdaining the pride, the new Khazarian Khakan Karak addressed Kan-Karadjar with a request for a help against the Modjars. As Modjars had already time to ravage the favourite encampment ( batavyl ) of the Baltavar, the Khorysdan, and made unsafe the road to Djalda, Kan-Karadjar gladly agreed.

His army, consisting of Kara-Bulgars and Anchis, ravaged the Modjarian possessions on the right tributary of Shir, Misha, north of Sasy-Idel, and reached Sain-Idel. There the Baltavar crushed the settlements of Murdases and for a proper punishment of the enemies built the city Kan.

A part of the frightened Modjars fled beyond the Sain-Idel and settled between this river and Sura, and some Modjars together with Askal, the son of the Modjarian leader Ülai-Bata, even reached Bershud and called one of its rivers Misha…

However, the Khakan did not help the Baltavar with the promised strike against Modjars from the south, and the Bashkorts and Murdases recovered and besieged Kara-Bulgars in their city. Very soon Kan-Karadjar tired of sitting in the besieged city, and he decided at any cost to make to the Kara-Bulgars. But he barely began the sortie, thoughtlessly, without buckling his helmet, as the enemy arrow punched his throat and tore off his terrestrial life…

Ugyr Aydar, the 15-year old son of Kan-Karadjar and his wife, the aunt of the Burdjanian Bek Yomyrchak…, was at that time in the Bashtu. Having received the message about the death of the father, he wanted to immediately ride to the Kan to retaliate against the enemies. Fortunately Budim, the Anchian courtier of the Baltavar, restrained him with the words: ”Khan, do not trust the Khakan.

He purposely stages attacks on Murdas, to strike you from behind!” However the Baltavar did not completely believe the boyar and said: ”Maybe you yourself want to harm me and collide me with Khakan? I shall send a troop to the Kan and check the validity of your words!” But when the sent troop fell to a treacherous attack of the Khazars who mistook it for the Baltavar’s, Aydar had to recognize the rightness of Budim and began to act wisely and carefully. As a sign of dissatisfaction with the act of the Khakan, Ugyr concluded a peace with Modjars and married a daughter of the Ugyrian Bek Ülai-Bat…

The favour of Ugyr towards the boyar increased even more after he built for Ugyr a new fortress called “Karadjar“ in honour of the fallen Kan…

In 816 AD the Budim’s detachment, operating on the order of the Baltavar, seized the Galidjian area. The Baltavar was so pleased with it that he appointed the boyar as the Tarkhan of the captured Balyn. Budim restored the Galidj and Urus, and with permission of Aydar, who completely trusted him, built Shamlyn, Djir and Men. Men was named so because there gathered one thousand Balynian Ulchians-soldiers for the support of the Budim’s djien trips in his viceroy province, and he called his Tarkhanlyk ”Ak Urus” to differentiate from the Urus district in Kara-Bulgar. Identical thousands gathered in Galidj, Shamlyn and Djir.

And these soldiers were called” Ak Uruslar” or “Uruslar“, for they served the Urusian boyar… At the same time Budim, not trusting the Balynians, hired one thousand of Anatyshian Almans, five thousand of Bailakian Ulchis from a tribe Kulbak. He held Kulbaks closely, and for the Anatyshians he built a fortress Kalgan on the river Kara-Тун. And Aydar in every possible way lauded the actions of the boyar, for Budim began to send him a tenfold tribute…

In 817 AD Karak managed to crush Kubars and to break in into their capital, the city of Samandar. The leader of insurgents, mullah Abdallah, under an order of the Khakan was hanged from a minaret of the local mosque Djok… And the Abdallah’s ancestor, a merchant Sindj, was from India. When the Arabian ghazis reached Khorasan, Sindj was there for the trade affairs and he was the first to accept Islam.

Inspired with an idea of education, he decided to come back home and to illuminate it with beams of true faith, but ghazis persuaded him to head the local merchant guild, and he remained in Khorasan… His descendant Abdallah got to Khazaria with the Khorasan embassy and was held here by the Khakan Bardjil. Spending a few years in zindan, Abdallah was released by Bulan and appointed a kadi of the Djurashian Burdjans. Soon he built for himself a fortress which was called Samandar and in which he was executed…

The defeated Burdjans, Saklans and Djurashes fled to Modjars and were warmly accepted by their Bek Ülai-Bat who was unhappy with the Khazars. However in 820 AD Karak strongly defeated Sasy-Idel Bashkorts, and the bigger part of Ugyrs moved to the Kichi-Shir province of the Kara-Bulgar. The part of Kubars went to the Bulgarian Beilyk Kara-Bulgar and established there a city Kubar or Nur-Suvar, and another, led by the Abdallah son Shams went to the province Bashtu of the Kara-Bulgar.

Very little time passed, and from Bashtu came a rumour about Karak preparing an invasion against Kara-Bulgar. After that came the ambassadors of the Khakan and declared: ”For five years you are not paying the tribute to Khazaria, and meanwhile the limits and incomes of your state increased many times. If now you again refuse the payment, the Khakan will compel you with a force!”

The mullah Shams then came to Aydar and told him: ”Ah, the Great Kan! Do not look at this invasion as a usual war, because the Khakan managed to assemble 100 thousand horsemen, and we cannot resist him with own strength!”

-”What shall we do?” asked Baltavar.

-”You and your people should accept Islam, and then the Almighty will find a way to rescue us!” answered Shams.

Aydar immediately accepted Islam and sent the Khakan a two-edged Almanian sword with the words: ”I am sending you this sword so that you know: after I accepted the true faith, the Tangra will strike all my enemies with both edges!”

But the djuras of the Baltavar did not dare to part at once with their delusions. To convince them of power of the Creator, the mullah told Baltavar in their presence: ”Today at night I saw myself in the Kharka balik and heard a voice from the sky: ”Strengthen this balik additionally, for the infidels want to pass to Bashtu through this place!”.

I think, that this is a command of the Almighty and I ask you to carry it out!” Aydar immediately gave orders, and balik Kharka was strongly reinforced. Hardly any time passed after the completion as Karak with the army came to balik and besieged it. Learning about it, the djuras of the Kan bewildered and went towards the enemy in deep thought.

In an army of the Baltavar was 20 thousand fighters, of which 10 thousand were Anchis, 5 thousand were Kara-Bulgars, 3 thousand were Uruses and 2 thousand were Anatyshianss and Ak-Uruses of Budim. There were no Modjars, as they went to raid the Sulian Burdjans, who were oppressing the local Avars.

The army of the Baltavar approached the Kharka at the moment when Khazars started the storm and beat off the attack. The angered Khazarian Türks, however, quickly recovered and with a frenzy threw themselves on Kara-Bulgars. Started a fight of horrifying cruelty in which, and everybody knew it, could not be any captives. Despite the bravery of Anchians, a 70 thousand of iron-clad Türks broke through their lines and with a lateral strike overturned the Uruses and 2 thousand Kara-Bulgars with them.

When the intoxicated by blood Khazarian Türks began to tramp the running Kara-Bulgars, the Baltavar and the djuras of his troop cried: ”Ah, teacher! What shall we do now?”

-“Shout “Allah akbar”,- and fearlessly go to fight!” – answered Shams.

The djuras cried” Allah akbar!” so, that the ground trembled and rushed to the enemy. From the other side at this moment the Modjars, who came back from the raid, struck the Türks. The Khazars, who already assumed they were the winners, were taken aback from the sirprize and in a panic took to flight. Our army hacked the enemies to the river Kichi-Shir, and of them only 7 thousand, and in the pettiest shape, returned to the headquarters… Many of the Baltavar djuras, convinced in the omnipotence of the Almighty, accepted Islam and became ghazis…

When the military leader Burtas of the Khazars reported about the destruction of the whole army, shocked Karak ordered to kill him immediately. Then Karak exclaimed: ”You cannot execute me for this defeat! In fact we already turned Bulgars into flight, and we were defeated not by the people, but by Elbegens who suddenly come to the aid of Bulgars riding black horses, which flew above the banners!” […]

Hearing this, the boyars of Türks – pagans began to tell to the people: ”This is a punishment of Tangra for betrayal of his faith! If we do not overthrow the Judean Khakan, all our power will be lost!” The Kara-Khazars were excited and raised in place of Karak a son of Asankul, the pagan Urus. Karak fled to Samandar, but the local Burdjans, retaliating him for his atrocities, chopped him down in pieces together with his courtiers and the Jewish sons. Only a former pagan Burtas, and the little son of Karak, Manas, whom the military leader posed as his son, were saved…

The position of Urus was rather difficult. After the slaughter at Kharka, the Modjars seized again the province Sasy-Idel and devastated everything in-between the Kichi-Shir and the land of Kasheks. Until now one small river there in memory of this is called Ugyr-su.

The possession of the Kara-Saklanian part of the Kara-Bulgar, thus, even more reliably connected with the limits of the Bulgarian Beylik, and his governor Barys from the Marduan clan did not delay with the recognition of being the servant of Aydar. Ugyr himself, to even stronger vex the Khazars, declared himself the Emir of Bolgar and the Khakan of all the Saklan. But Urus nevertheless kept the state from disintegration.

He granted big rights to the Khazarian Moslems and Christians, which attracted many Khorasans and Rums and the sympathies of the rulers of these countries. The Khorasanians armed a new army of Urus, and Rumians gave him money on which he hired a part of Badjinaks and built a strong fortress Hin. And it was named so because in it were quartered garrisons of the mercenary Badjinaks, who sometimes are called Hins.

Peaceful Aydar strongly underestimated Urus, telling his djuras – ghazis in reply to their demand to finish off the Khazarian reign: ”The most part of the Saklan became Bulgarian again, and it will force his small Khazarian piece to recognize our power without any war”. Already in 832 AD Urus became so strong that could bribe the Galidjian Sadims and Ulchis into his service.

The infidels rose and proclaimed the son Chinavyz of Urus, who arrived to them with the money, as the Khazarian viceroy of Galidj. With thisthe rebels ruthlessly knifed a large part of Kulbaks and Uruses, and the surviving fled together with Budim to the Bashtu.

The same year the group of the Galidjians led by Khalib passed along Idel and ravaged the Bulgarian Beilyk, and then, on the order of Urus, made a devastating attack on the Timer-Kabak and Azerbaijan. After that, the Khazarian Badjanaks broke in into the Djalda steppe and filled it with savagery.

Only in the 840 AD the senior son of Aydar, Djilki, managed to inflict on the Badjanaks a deciding defeat and to force their remains to return to Djaik.

Then As, the son of Budim, campaigned to Galidj, and again subordinated it to Aydar. There was no bloodshed, for Chinavyz fled, and Khalib, who remained for him, preferred to submit without a fight. Kind As did not punish anybody, and pleased Khalib declared himself his brother and took his name. Only the Djir refused to submit to Kara-Bulgar, and the As had to take it with an attack. By this city is a kurgan, built up by As on the tomb of the soldiers, and it is called Urustau. In memory of this victory As also began to call himself Djir.

The Bolgar Bek Barys, hearing about the victory of Djir-As, came to him with the expression of subordination to Aydar and was generously rewarded for it and allowed to return to his possessions…

These defeats of Urus encouraged the Khazarian Jews, and with help of the Bek Burtas they installed Manas as Khakan. Manas was asking that Urus should not be touched, for he was frightened during all of his life by the murder of his own father. But vindictive Burtas, who was taking Urus to the Dima-Tarkhan, finished off the deposed Khakan on the way with a strike of a dagger in the back, and then portrayed him a victim of an imaginary attack by the Tamyanian Bulgars…

Being quiet and timid at heart, Manas wanted to conclude a peace with Aydar immediately after ascending the throne, but the evil Burtas came across here too. When a first caravan went from the Bolgar to Bashtu, he and his people intentionally robbed it. Then Aydar became irate for the second time in his life and personally went to the Shir to punish the guilty.

Learning about it, two aksakals from two villages, between which the caravan was robbed, came to him and said: ”It is not our clans who did it, so do not spill our blood in vain. Better, set a ransom to us, and if one of us does not bring it within ten days, he will leave these places forever, and the one who brings will remain and you will not touch him”. Kan, who respected the old age, cooled down with these words and appointed as the ransom the head of the inciter of the evil deed.

One clan did not find the murderer and moved to the river Burtas which then began to be called by the name of the aksakal Aü, and the other clan brought the head of Burtas and remained in place. Thus Manas got rid of the harmful Bek who was straining him, and the peace came between the two states…

Shams did not agree with Aydar’s pardon of Khalib, organizer of the attack on Islamic provinces, and as a sign of displeasure, distanced from the Kan. Not far from Bashtu he dug a cave and stayed there in a voluntary incarceration. However was it annoying for the Kara-Bulgarian Khakan, he did not change the decision, because Balyn supplied half of the state income. But Shams’ son, Michael, received the father’s position of the tebir in the office of the Khakan. 

Aydar was afraid that nobody can replace Shams, nicknamed for his eagerness the Tebir, but soon to his pleasure he saw that he was mistaken: the twenty years old mullah Michael turned out to be an exemplary secretary. He finished started by his father translation of all the official scripts from the old Bulgarian letters “kunig“ to the Arabian letters, but the Khazars, Anchis, Balyns and the Kara-Bulgar infidels continued to use the “kunig“.

In 840 AD on the assignment by the Baltavar Michael carried out the population census which determined the number of the Aydar’s subjects in the Inner Kara-Bulgar, 500 thousand, including 50 thousand Kara-Bulgars, in Balyn, 600 thousand… In the Outer Kara-Bulgar and in the Bulyar, excepting the households of the servitors, the number of the taxpaying households paying the tax in the amount of the cost of one marten pelt was 173 thousand…

In 855 AD Kan Aydar died and under his will was buried in city named after his father, Karadjar, for he grieved for him all his life. On the deathbed, the Baltavar was saying that his death is coming to him in punishment for not attending the burial of Tebir Shams who passed away a half-year prior to it.

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